One of the most common diseases in the world and in Turkey is heart diseases. Although these diseases usually manifest themselves with serious symptoms, they can sometimes occur quite silently. Developing and changing cutting-edge technology has also made great leaps in the field of medicine. With this developing technology, cases that used to be deadly are now successful and connecting people to life.
Especially in the bypass surgery department, the methods developed by the scientists, combined with the skills and experience of the doctors, ensure that the heart patients are comfortable during and after the operation, as well as prolonging their lives.
What is Bypass Surgery?
Bypass literally means bridging. Bypass surgery; It is the name of the surgical operation performed to eliminate the disease that occurs as a result of narrowing or blockage in some parts of the arteries that feed the heart.
With this surgical operation, veins prepared by taking them from another part of the body are added to replace the narrowed or occluded veins, and the sick veins are restored to their former function. In this way, the blood flow process continues as before.
How and When Is Bypass Surgery Performed?
Heart diseases manifest themselves with serious symptoms. In such cases, doctors immediately perform surgical intervention.
The surgery, which is performed as a result of obstruction or narrowing of the vital vessels around the heart, is performed in two ways. Usually, the first is the operation performed while the heart is working.
In the other way, it is done by stopping the heart. It is usually performed as open heart surgery. After the person’s chest is opened with surgical intervention, the function of the heart and lungs is stopped and they are connected to the machine. While the machines perform the duties of these vital functions, the doctor performs bridging surgery in order to remove the narrowing or blockage.
In bypass surgeries, veins taken from the patient’s body are generally used. Most commonly, veins taken from the person’s left or right breast are used. These veins can last longer than veins taken from the leg, for example. Secondly, the place where the vein is taken is the left arm of the person. Surgical intervention is completed by removing the arteries in the left arm.
Before Bypass Surgery
The pre-operative preparation of the patient who will undergo bypass surgery is of vital importance. This preparation is generally as follows:
- If the person does not have a special condition, he or she is hospitalized the day before.
- The cardiologist, heart surgeon and the specialists who will perform the anesthesia in the hospital evaluate the patient in detail.
- The drugs he actively uses are definitely checked and evaluated. Some may continue, while others may need a break. This decision is made by specialist doctors.
- It is very important not to drink blood thinners before the operation. Since blood thinners will increase bleeding, they should be discontinued if used.
- Before the operation, things such as alcohol and cigarettes should not be used.
- In order to ensure bacterial cleaning throughout the body, body cleaning should be provided by using the bacterial soap given to the patient by the doctor. This cleaning ensures that infectious conditions that may occur during surgery are prevented.
- The operation is started by giving general anesthesia to the patient. The operation, which is expected to take 2-3 hours on average, may end earlier or later depending on the complications that may occur inside. It is not possible to specify an exact time at this stage.
- At the end of the operation, the sternum is closed with a surgical wire and this wire is not removed from the body.
- The incisions are closed with the help of stitches and the operation is completed.
- Sutures should be taken care of at certain intervals after the operation. The union of the breastbone requires a certain amount of time.
- After the operation, the person should also pay attention to his own care. It is necessary to protect the breasts by lying on the back.
- After the effect of anesthesia passes and the patient wakes up, he encounters 2-3 tubes in the chest. These tubes are used to expel the harmful fluids formed around the heart from the body.
After Bypass Surgery
Bypass surgery is a very difficult operation. One must protect himself extremely well and be well taken care of. We can list the situations that await the patient after the surgery as follows:
- The patient can stand up after a certain period of time after the operation.
- Walking activity should be in the form of short walks in the fresh air.
- It is quite normal for the patient to experience situations such as dizziness, fatigue, loss of appetite, and feeling sluggish after the surgery.
- The patient should rest and not tire himself/herself.
- After the operation, it is necessary to lie in the supine position within a period of 1.5-2 months.
- In order for the breastbone not to open, it is necessary to avoid movements such as turning to the side.
- Even when coughing until the breastbone boils, it should not make any hard movements.
- The patient should quit bad habits.
- The patient should get plenty of rest.
- He should be fed healthy.
- Avoid sources of stress.
- He should drink plenty of water.
- Lots of walking and exercise.
- The healing process is a long one. Changing the patient to a healthy lifestyle can shorten this period.
Risks of Bypass Surgery
Open heart surgery is a very difficult operation. Before this surgery, the patient and his family should prepare themselves for possible risks and these risks should be conveyed to them by the doctor.
One of the most important risk factors of this surgery is infection. After the operation, the patient should be isolated for 4-5 days and should not be contacted by anyone. In the event of the slightest infection of the patient, whose treatment and controls continue in the intensive care unit, his life is at risk. For this reason, it takes 8-10 days to be taken to a normal room.
In general, the possible risks are as follows:
- Heart compression
- Heart attack risk
- Risk of infection
- Blood loss
- Risk of blood clots
- Pain in the chest area
- Problem in breathing
- Lung and kidney failure
- Feeling dizzy
- Memory problems
What is Coronary Bypass?
One of the most frequently performed heart surgeries in the medical field is bypass surgery in Coronary Artery diseases.
One of the most important organs in the human body is the heart. The heart works for us day and night. There are some blood vessels in the body that feed the heart. Over time, these vessels narrow or become completely blocked for various reasons. The disease caused by the occlusion of these vessels is called coronary artery disease.
In this disease, a new vessel is added to the blocked or narrowed vessels, thereby activating the blood flow. Thanks to these vessels, the heart returns to its former healthy form and continues to pump blood.
Coronary Bypass Surgery
Coronary bypass surgery in coronary disease is performed very easily and comfortably with the latest technology that has been implemented today. Developing technology keeps the patient’s chance of survival very high and accelerates the healing process.
After the operation, the patient stays in the hospital for a certain period of time. This period varies according to the person and complications. The patient who goes home should rest for a while, check the doctor frequently and wait for the doctor’s approval to stand up.
After the operation, the patient should be well taken care of. The healing process of the patient who is well taken care of is faster.
Who Can Have Coronary Bypass Surgery?
In people with coronary bypass disease, treatment is applied in three ways with the doctor’s recommendation. These are;
- Treatment using medication,
- Coronary balloon angioplasty,
- Stent application,
- Coronary bypass operation,
Which of the above treatments will be applied is decided after a meeting with the specialist physician staff in the hospital.
The surgery to be performed on the patient is usually decided and performed when the following conditions are observed.
- Stenosis of the main coronary artery on the left,
- severe stenoses in more than one coronary artery,
- Impairment of the contractile function and strength of the heart due to this disease,
- Chest pains persist despite medication,
There are no artificial veins that doctors can use during this surgery, but veins taken from the patient’s own body are used.
Prof.Dr. Ergün Dağlıoğlu (Eğitim Görevlisi), Beyin Cerrahı, Beyin Ve Sinir Cerrahisi