Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This disease, which usually affects the lungs, can spread to organs other than the respiratory system. Tuberculosis, which affects millions of people around the world, can have fatal consequences if left untreated. In this article we have written for you, we will try to give information about the causes, symptoms and diagnosis of tuberculosis.
- What Are the Causes of Tuberculosis (TB)?
- What Are the Symptoms of Tuberculosis (TB)?
- How Is Tuberculosis Diagnosed?
- How Is the Tuberculosis (Tuberculosis) Test Performed?
- How Many Days Does the Tuberculosis Test Result?
- How Is Tuberculosis Transmitted?
- How Is Tuberculosis Treated?
- Does Tuberculosis (TB) Kill?
- Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment Prices in Turkey
What Are the Causes of Tuberculosis (TB)?
Tuberculosis is a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium is transmitted by airborne droplets from a sick person coughing, sneezing, talking or spitting. Bacteria taken by inhalation settles in the lungs and initiates tuberculosis infection. The risk factors for the spread of tuberculosis are;
- Prolonged and close contact with a person with tuberculosis increases the risk of transmission of the disease.
- Conditions that weaken the immune system such as HIV/AIDS, diabetes, kidney disease increase the risk of tuberculosis infection.
- Children and the elderly are more prone to tuberculosis due to their weaker immune systems.
- Inadequate and unbalanced nutrition leads to weakening of the immune system, increasing the risk of tuberculosis.
What Are the Symptoms of Tuberculosis (TB)?
The symptoms of tuberculosis may vary depending on the severity of the infection and the organ where the infection is located. The most common symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis are:
- cough (usually lasting longer than 3 weeks)
- expectoration (sometimes bloody)
- chest pain or shortness of breath,
- Weakness and fatigue,
- Loss of appetite and weight loss,
- Night sweats,
- Fever and chills,
How Is Tuberculosis Diagnosed?
The diagnosis of tuberculosis can be made by the patient’s symptoms, physical examination, tuberculin skin test, blood tests and imaging methods (X-ray or computed tomography). The tuberculin skin test is a test performed by evaluating a special liquid injected into the patient’s arm according to the reaction that occurs after 48-72 hours. Blood tests measure the immune system’s response to the tuberculosis bacteria. Abnormalities in the lungs are detected by imaging methods. For a definitive diagnosis, a sputum sample or biopsy material is taken and the presence of bacteria is investigated in the laboratory environment.
How Is the Tuberculosis (Tuberculosis) Test Performed?
Tuberculosis (TB) test is an important method used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis testing can be done by two main methods: Tuberculin skin test (Mantoux test) and blood test (IGRA).
Tuberculin Skin Test (Mantoux Test); This test is a skin test by injecting a liquid containing a special protein called tuberculin under the skin. During the test, the healthcare worker injects tuberculin fluid specifically into the inside of the forearm. Tuberculin fluid creates a skin reaction in people who have been in contact with tuberculosis bacteria, and this reaction is evaluated after 48-72 hours. During the evaluation, swelling at the injection site is measured and the results are evaluated.
Blood Test (IGRA); This method, called the Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA), is based on the measurement of a protein called interferon gamma produced by tuberculosis-specific cells. For this test, the blood sample taken from the patient is examined in the laboratory environment and the level of this protein is found to be high in people who have come into contact with tuberculosis bacteria.
How Many Days Does the Tuberculosis Test Result?
Tuberculosis test results vary depending on the method used.
Tuberculin Skin Test (Mantoux Test); The results of this test are evaluated within 48-72 hours from the time of injection. During this time, the swelling in the test area is measured and the results are determined.
Blood Test (IGRA); Blood test results are usually available within 24-48 hours. However, in some cases it may take several days to get results, depending on the lab load.
How Is Tuberculosis Transmitted?
Tuberculosis is an infection transmitted from person to person through airborne droplets. When a person with tuberculosis coughs, sneezes, speaks or sings, tiny droplets containing tuberculosis bacteria are released into the air. These droplets can remain suspended in the air for some time and can become infected if inhaled by others.
Long-term and close contact is usually required for the transmission of tuberculosis. Therefore, the risk of contracting tuberculosis is higher among people who are constantly together, such as those who live in the same household, work in the same workplace, or are in the same class at school.
Tuberculosis is not transmitted sexually, through blood, or through food. Also, TB is not transmitted by shaking hands, hugging, kissing, touching surfaces or swimming in swimming pools.
How Is Tuberculosis Treated?
Tuberculosis treatment can be carried out effectively with the right drugs and regular use. The basis of tuberculosis treatment is drugs that kill tuberculosis bacteria and prevent the spread of the disease. These drugs are generally used as follows;
First Phase (Intensive Phase); During the first two months, the patient is given four different drugs. These drugs are usually Isoniazid, Rifampin, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol. The combination of these four drugs helps to kill most of the bacteria and prevents the spread of the disease.
Second Phase (Continuation Phase); After the first phase, the patient is usually given two drugs called Isoniazid and Rifampin. These drugs help kill any remaining bacteria and prevent a recurrence of the disease. This stage usually lasts between 4 and 7 months.
The success of the treatment depends on the patient’s regular and correct use of drugs. Irregular use of drugs or premature discontinuation of treatment may cause bacteria to become resistant and treatment may fail. Therefore, it is important for patients to take the medication regularly for the period recommended by the doctor.
In the treatment of tuberculosis, patients may also need to make some changes in their lifestyle. Reducing smoking and alcohol use, a balanced and healthy diet, and regular exercise help increase the success of the treatment.
During the treatment process, it is important for the patients to go to the doctor’s control regularly and have the necessary tests done. This helps to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment and make any necessary changes.
Does Tuberculosis (TB) Kill?
Tuberculosis is considered a serious public health problem worldwide and causes high mortality rates, especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis is a disease that can be fatal if left untreated. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the risk of death can be greatly reduced.
Tuberculosis can be fatal, especially in people with compromised immune systems. People with suppressed immune systems, such as HIV/AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients, cancer treatment, and diabetes patients, have a more severe course of tuberculosis and a higher risk of death.
It is estimated that about 50% of untreated active tuberculosis cases may result in death. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the vast majority of patients can fully recover and return to their normal lives.
In conclusion, tuberculosis can be a deadly disease, but with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the risk of death can be greatly reduced. For this reason, it is vital for people with tuberculosis symptoms to apply to a health institution and start the treatment process without wasting time.
Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment Prices in Turkey
Turkey has succeeded in making its name known to the world with its investments and Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.
- Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
- Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
- Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
- Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
- Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
- Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
- Easy transportation.
- Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.
Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. We can see that patients and their relatives who want to come to Turkey are doing research on Tuberculosis (Tuberculosis) Treatment Prices in Turkey. However, it would not be correct to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.
Prof.Dr. Ergün Dağlıoğlu (Eğitim Görevlisi), Beyin Cerrahı, Beyin Ve Sinir Cerrahisi