Leukaemia, commonly known as blood cancer, is a serious disease caused by the abnormal proliferation of blood cells. This type of cancer affects the bone marrow and blood cells, disrupting the normal functioning of the body and weakening the immune system. Although leukemia usually occurs in childhood, it can also be seen in adults. In this article we have written for you, we will try to give information about the types, causes and symptoms of leukemia.
- What Are The Types of Leukaemia?
- What Are The Causes of Blood Cancer (Leukaemia)?
- What Are The Symptoms Of Blood Cancer (Leukemia)?
- How Is Leukaemia Diagnosed?
- How Is Blood Cancer (Leukemia ) Treated?
- How Is A Bone Marrow Transplant Performed?
- In Which Cases Is Bone Marrow Transplantation Applied?
- What Is The Success Rate Of Leukemia Treatment?
- Leukaemia Treatment Prices in Turkey
What Are The Types of Leukaemia?
Leukaemia can be classified into four different types. These are as follows;
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL); This type of leukemia, usually seen in children, is caused by the abnormal proliferation of white blood cells called lymphocytes.
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML); This type, which can be seen in both children and adults, occurs as a result of abnormal proliferation of myeloid cells.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL); This type of leukemia, usually seen in adults, follows a slowly progressive course and is due to abnormal proliferation of lymphocyte cells.
Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML); This type, which is more common in adults, is characterized by slow and continuous proliferation of myeloid cells.
What Are The Causes of Blood Cancer (Leukaemia)?
Although the exact factors causing leukemia are not yet fully known, some risk factors are as follows;
- Genetic factors,
- Radiation exposure,
- Exposure to chemical substances,
- Diseases related to the immune system,
- Chromosome disorders,
What Are The Symptoms Of Blood Cancer (Leukemia)?
Symptoms of leukemia may vary depending on the type and progression of the disease. However, the following symptoms can be seen in general;
- Weakness and fatigue,
- Fever and infections,
- Bleeding and bruising,
- Weight loss and loss of appetite,
- Swelling of the lymph nodes,
Leukaemia is a disease that can be controlled with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. If any of the symptoms are experienced, a specialist should be consulted immediately.
How Is Leukaemia Diagnosed?
Leukaemia is a type of cancer that occurs as a result of uncontrolled proliferation and immaturity of blood cells. To diagnose leukemia, doctors use various methods such as patient complaints, physical examination and laboratory tests.
Firstly, the patient’s complaints and history are evaluated. Symptoms such as fatigue, fever, weight loss, susceptibility to infections, bleeding and bruising may indicate leukemia. A physical examination is then performed and organs such as the lymph nodes, spleen and liver are checked for enlargement.
One of the most important tests for the diagnosis of leukemia is a complete blood count. This test measures the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in the blood. People with leukemia usually have an increased number of white blood cells and a decreased number of other cells. However, complete blood count results only raise suspicion of leukemia and further tests are needed for a definitive diagnosis.
For a definitive diagnosis, a bone marrow biopsy is performed. During this procedure, a small sample of bone marrow is taken from the patient’s hip bone and examined under a microscope. The presence and type of leukemia cells are determined in this way.
Once leukemia has been diagnosed, additional tests may be performed to determine the stage and extent of the disease. These tests include imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radioisotope scans.
How Is Blood Cancer (Leukemia ) Treated?
Treatment of leukemia varies depending on the type and stage of the disease and the general health status of the patient. The main methods of treatment are;
- Radiation therapy,
- Targeted therapy,
- Bone marrow transplant,
How Is A Bone Marrow Transplant Performed?
Bone marrow transplantation is a method used to treat leukemia and other blood diseases. The procedure involves replacing the patient’s bone marrow with healthy cells.
Before bone marrow transplantation, high doses of chemotherapy and sometimes radiation therapy are applied to completely destroy the patient’s bone marrow and cancer cells. The patient is then given healthy bone marrow cells. These cells can be taken from a compatible donor or from the patient’s own cells.
The bone marrow cells are administered intravenously and settle in the patient’s bone marrow and start the production of new blood cells. After transplantation, there is a high risk of infection and complications until the patient’s immune system is restored. Therefore, it is important that patients are closely monitored during and after the transplantation process and appropriate measures are taken.
1- From Whom is Bone Marrow Transplanted?
Bone marrow transplantation is the process of transferring diseased or damaged bone marrow from a healthy donor to the patient. Bone marrow is a type of tissue in which blood cells are produced and is an important part of the body’s immune system. Diseases that require bone marrow transplantation include leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, aplastic anemia and some immune system disorders.
Donors for bone marrow transplantation can generally be classified as follows;
Autologous donor; In this case, the patient’s own bone marrow is used. Before the procedure, the patient’s bone marrow is removed and frozen and stored. Then, after the patient’s diseased bone marrow is destroyed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy, the healthy bone marrow is returned to the patient.
Relative donor; The most suitable donors for bone marrow transplantation are usually the patient’s siblings or relatives. This is because relatives have a higher chance of tissue compatibility. Relative donors have a higher chance of success.
Allogeneic donor; Bone marrow from an unrelated donor is called allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. In this case, it may be difficult to find a suitable donor for tissue compatibility and the risk of complications increases when compatibility cannot be achieved.
What Is Done After Bone Marrow Transplantation?
After bone marrow transplantation, patients are monitored and there are some important points to be considered in the process;
After bone marrow transplantation, the immune system of patients weakens and becomes susceptible to infections. Therefore, it is important for patients to pay attention to hygiene rules, to be alert to signs of infection and to use antibiotics and medications recommended by the doctor regularly.
After bone marrow transplantation, it is important that patients pay attention to a healthy and balanced diet to increase body resistance and accelerate the healing process.
After bone marrow transplantation, patients should go to the doctor’s control regularly and have the examinations and tests recommended by the doctor. In this process, the patient’s condition is closely monitored and any complications are diagnosed early.
In Which Cases Is Bone Marrow Transplantation Applied?
Bone marrow transplantation is applied especially in the following cases;
- Aplastic anemia,
- Immune system disorders,
What Is The Success Rate Of Leukemia Treatment?
Leukaemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow and has various types. The methods and success rates used in the treatment of this disease vary depending on the type of leukemia, the age, and the health status of the patient. However, in general, significant progress has been made in the treatment of leukemia in recent years and success rates have increased.
Methods used in the treatment of leukemia include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapies, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The aim of these treatments is to destroy cancer cells and restart the production of healthy blood cells. Success rates vary depending on the effectiveness of the treatment methods and the patient’s condition.
Success rates in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are particularly high in children. While the success rate of ALL treatment in children varies between 80-90%, this rate is around 40% in adults. In the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), success rates vary between 20-80%, depending on the age of the patient and the subtype of leukemia.
Treatment success rates are different in chronic leukemia types. In the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), most patients can experience long periods of remission and have a high quality of life. In the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), targeted therapies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors allow more than 90% of patients to enter long-term remission.
The success rate of leukemia treatment varies depending on the type of disease, age, and health status of the patient. Thanks to advances in treatment methods, the life expectancy and quality of life of leukemia patients have increased. However, there are still significant challenges in the treatment of leukemia and therefore early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance.
Leukaemia Treatment Prices in Turkey
Turkey has managed to announce its name to the world with its investments and studies in the field of health. Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.
- Hospitals are large, clean, spacious, and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
- Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
- Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
- Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
- Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
- Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
- Easy transportation.
- Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.
Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. We can see that patients and relatives of patients who want to come to Turkey are doing research on Leukaemia Treatment Prices in Turkey. However, it would not be right to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.
Prof.Dr. Ergün Dağlıoğlu (Eğitim Görevlisi), Beyin Cerrahı, Beyin Ve Sinir Cerrahisi