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What is Epilepsy and Epilepsy Surgery

Epilepsy is a neurological disease that affects people’s lives and affects millions of people worldwide. This disease is characterized by recurrent seizures resulting from an abnormal increase in electrical activity in the brain. Epilepsy surgery is a treatment method that can be applied in cases where seizures cannot be controlled. By reading this article we have prepared for you, you can learn more about epilepsy and have information about the causes of epilepsy, pre-seizure symptoms, and surgical treatment options.

What is Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterized by recurrent seizures caused by an abnormal increase in electrical activity between neurons in the brain. Seizures occur because neurons fire and communicate abnormally. Epileptic seizures can range from mild to severe and may present with different symptoms. Epilepsy can start at any time of life and can affect any age group.

What Causes Epilepsy?

The exact cause of epilepsy is unknown in most cases. However, some factors are known to increase the risk of epilepsy. These factors are as follows:

  • Genetic predisposition: People with a family history of epilepsy have a higher risk of developing epilepsy.
  • Brain damage: Conditions that cause brain damage such as trauma, infection, tumor or stroke can lead to epilepsy.
  • Complications during labor: Lack of oxygen during labor or birth trauma can increase the risk of developing epilepsy.
  • Developmental disorders: Genetic or developmental disorders such as autism and neurofibromatosis can increase the risk of epilepsy.

What are the pre-seizure symptoms of epilepsy?

Some symptoms can be seen before epilepsy seizures. These symptoms are warnings that occur shortly before the onset of a seizure and usually warn that a seizure is coming. Epilepsy pre-seizure symptoms are as follows:

  • Aura: Sensory or emotional changes felt before a seizure. Aura can be in the form of a smell, sound, image or emotion.
  • Déjà vu: A feeling experienced before a seizure, as if it has happened before.
  • Dizziness or headache: Dizziness or mild headache may occur before a seizure.
  • Darkening or blurred vision: Problems with vision may occur before a seizure.
  • Difficulty concentrating: Impaired concentration may occur before a seizure.

Epilepsy is an important neurological disease that affects the quality of life. Knowledge about the causes of epilepsy and pre-seizure symptoms can contribute to the management and treatment of the disease. Epilepsy surgery may be a promising treatment option for patients who do not respond to drug therapy.

What Should We Do During Epilepsy Seizures?

Epilepsy is a disease characterized by seizures caused by an abnormal increase in electrical activity in the brain. During epilepsy seizures, it is important that those around the person intervene correctly and quickly. Here are the things to do during epilepsy seizures:

  • Stay calm and do not panic: It is important to stay calm during a seizure and tell others around to stay calm. Panicking can make the situation worse.
  • Keep the person safe: Place the patient’s head and body on a soft surface during a seizure. Support the head with a pillow or a piece of clothing. Remove sharp and hard objects from the surroundings to prevent the patient from getting hurt.
  • Control breathing: It is important to check the patient’s breathing during a seizure. If the patient has difficulty breathing, keep the airway open by lying on its side.
  • Keep track of time: It is important to keep track of how long the seizure lasts. If the seizure lasts more than 5 minutes or if there are consecutive seizures, call for emergency medical help.
  • Do not put pressure on the person: It is not advisable to put weight on the patient or hold them tightly during a seizure. This can make breathing more difficult.
  • Do not put anything in the mouth: It is dangerous to put something in the patient’s mouth during a seizure or to try to hold the tongue. This can cause the patient to choke or break their teeth.
  • Support after the seizure: After the seizure has passed, support the patient and explain what happened. After the seizure, the patient may have memory loss for a while and may not remember what happened.

Is Epilepsy Chronic?

Epilepsy is often considered a chronic disease. Epilepsy is a lifelong disease characterized by recurrent seizures. However, the course and treatment of the disease vary from person to person. Some patients can control their seizures with appropriate treatment and medication and may experience long periods of remission. Other patients cannot completely stop their seizures or reduce their frequency. Therefore, it can be said that epilepsy is a chronic disease, but the response to treatment and quality of life show individual differences.

What are the Types of Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is divided into different types according to the characteristics and causes of seizures. Here are some basic types of epilepsy:

  • Focal (fragmented) seizures: These types of seizures occur when only a certain area of the brain is affected. Focal seizures are divided into two types: those in which awareness is preserved or lost.
  • Generalized seizures: Generalized seizures occur when both hemispheres of the brain are affected. These seizures are subdivided into tonic-clonic, absence, atonic, myoclonic, and tonic seizures.
  • Seizures of unknown onset: These seizures occur when the onset point cannot be determined. These seizures may later develop into focal or generalized seizures.
  • Symptomatic epilepsy: This type of epilepsy is characterized by seizures caused by brain damage or another medical condition.
  • Idiopathic epilepsy: Idiopathic epilepsy occurs when there is no apparent cause for the seizures. Genetic factors are thought to play an important role.
  • Cryptogenic epilepsy: Cryptogenic epilepsy occurs when the cause of seizures is unknown. This type of epilepsy is usually more difficult to treat than other types of epilepsy.

What are the Symptoms of Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by seizures resulting from the abnormal electrical activity of the brain. Symptoms of epilepsy vary depending on the type of seizure and which part of the brain is affected. Here are some of the symptoms of epilepsy:

  • Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal seizures): In these seizures, patients experience loss of consciousness, convulsions, and tremors. Breathing may become difficult and urinary incontinence may occur.
  • Absence seizures (petit mal seizures): In these seizures, there is a short loss of consciousness and patients usually look blank. These seizures often start in childhood and are rapid seizures that start and end within seconds.
  • Focal seizures: In these seizures, only a part of the brain is affected and the symptoms vary according to the affected area. Focal seizures are divided into two types:
  • Simple focal seizures: In these seizures, consciousness is not affected. Symptoms such as convulsion, and sensory or automatic movements are observed.
  • Complex focal seizures: In these seizures, there is loss of consciousness and patients may make automatic movements, for example rubbing their hands or licking their lips.
  • Atonic seizures: In these seizures, muscle tone is lost and patients may fall suddenly.
  • Myoclonic seizures: These seizures involve sudden and rapid contraction movements.
  • Clonic seizures: Rhythmic contraction and relaxation movements are seen in these seizures.

How is epilepsy diagnosed?

Epilepsy is diagnosed by using the patient’s seizure history, physical and neurological examination, laboratory tests, and brain imaging methods. Here are some methods used in the diagnosis of epilepsy:

  • Electroencephalography (EEG): EEG is a test that records brain waves and shows abnormal electrical activity. It is the most commonly used method in the diagnosis of epilepsy.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): MRI is used to obtain detailed images of the brain and helps to detect abnormalities that can cause epilepsy.
  • Computed Tomography (CT): CT is used to obtain cross-sectional images of the brain and helps detect abnormalities that can cause epilepsy.
  • Blood tests: Blood tests can help detect metabolic or genetic disorders that may cause epilepsy.

How is epilepsy treated?

Epilepsy treatment varies depending on the type of epilepsy, its cause, and the age of the patient. Here are some methods used in the treatment of epilepsy:

  • Medication: The first step in epilepsy treatment is usually antiepileptic drugs. These drugs help reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. Medications vary from patient to patient and are used according to the doctor’s recommendation.
  • Vagus nerve stimulator (VNS): VNS is a device placed in the chest area that sends regular electrical impulses to the vagus nerve. These impulses can help reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.
  • Ketogenic diet: The ketogenic diet is a diet plan that is high in fat and low in carbohydrates. This diet can help control seizures, especially in children who are resistant to medication.
  • Surgical treatment: Surgical treatment can be applied in cases where epilepsy seizures originate from a specific brain region and removal of this region can significantly improve the patient’s quality of life.
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS): DBS is a treatment method that tries to reduce seizure activity by sending electrical impulses to certain areas in the brain. This method may be an option for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Epilepsy Treatment Prices in Türkiye

Türkiyehas managed to announce its name to the world with its investments and studies in the field of health. Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.

  • Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
  • Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
  • Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
  • Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
  • Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
  • Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
  • Easy transportation.
  • Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.

We can see that patients and relatives of patients who want to come to Türkiye are doing research on Epilepsy Treatment Prices in Türkiye . However, it would not be right to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.

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