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What Are Thyroid Gland Diseases and How Are They Treated?

The thyroid gland is a small organ that produces and secretes hormones vital to the proper functioning of our body. These hormones regulate our metabolic rate, energy production, and many other important functions. However, sometimes the thyroid gland cannot fully perform its function for various reasons, and this leads to various thyroid gland diseases. In this article we have written for you, we will discuss the functioning of the thyroid gland, what thyroid gland diseases are and how they can be treated.

What Is Thyroid?

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the front of the neck, just below the larynx. It consists of two lobes and the isthmus, a thin tissue that connects them. The thyroid gland produces and secretes thyroid hormones, which regulate the body’s energy use, heat production, and oxygen use by cells. These hormones, called triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), control the body’s growth, development, and overall metabolic rate.

How Does the Thyroid Gland Work?

The work of the thyroid gland is regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary glands located in the brain. The hypothalamus monitors the levels of thyroid hormones and signals the pituitary gland to secrete thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) when needed. When TSH reaches the thyroid gland, it stimulates the production and secretion of T3 and T4 hormones. These hormones then enter the bloodstream and regulate the body’s energy use and metabolic rate.

What Are Thyroid Gland Diseases?

Thyroid gland diseases occur when the thyroid gland is underactive (hypothyroidism) or overworked (hyperthyroidism). Some common types of these diseases are:

  • Hashimoto’s disease,
  • Graves’ disease,
  • Thyroid nodules,
  • Thyroid cancer,
  • Thyroiditis,

Treatment of thyroid gland diseases varies depending on the type and severity of the disease. In the case of hypothyroidism, oral medications are used to replace the missing thyroid hormones. In hyperthyroidism, drugs that reduce the production of thyroid hormones, radioactive iodine therapy or surgical intervention can be applied. Surgical treatment is usually required for thyroid nodules and cancer. In thyroiditis cases, painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs are usually used and treatment is applied for the underlying causes.

What Are Benign Thyroid Diseases?

The thyroid gland is a small hormone-producing organ located in the front of the neck. Benign thyroid diseases can affect the normal function of the thyroid gland, but do not cause cancer. Benign thyroid diseases include:

Hypothyroidism; This condition occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Causes of hypothyroidism include Hashimoto’s disease, thyroid gland surgery, and radioactive iodine therapy. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, sensitivity to cold, and dry skin.

Hyperthyroidism; This condition occurs when the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormone. Causes of hyperthyroidism include Graves’ disease, thyroid nodules, and thyroiditis. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include irritability, weight loss, hot flashes, and rapid heartbeat.

Goiter; This condition is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. Causes of goiter include iodine deficiency, imbalance in thyroid hormone production, and thyroid nodules. Symptoms of goiter include swelling in the throat, difficulty breathing and swallowing problems.

Thyroid nodules; They are benign masses that form in the thyroid gland. They often show no symptoms and are found incidentally. Rarely, large nodules can cause difficulty in breathing and swallowing.

Thyroiditis; It is an inflammation of the thyroid gland. Causes of thyroiditis include viral infections, autoimmune diseases and radiation therapy. Symptoms of thyroiditis include sore throat, fatigue, fever and tenderness in the thyroid gland.

What Are Malignant Thyroid Diseases?

Malignant thyroid diseases are associated with thyroid cancer. Types of thyroid cancer include;

Papillary thyroid cancer; It is the most common type of thyroid cancer. It usually grows slowly and can spread to the lymph nodes.

Follicular thyroid cancer; It is the second most common type of thyroid cancer. It usually grows faster and can spread to other organs through the blood.

Medullary thyroid cancer; This less common type is usually familial and can occur at an early age.

Anaplastic thyroid cancer; This rare, aggressive strain grows quickly and can spread to other parts of the body.

Who Is At Risk?

Thyroid diseases and cancer risk factors include:

  • Your risk is increased if you have relatives with thyroid disease or cancer.
  • Women and elderly individuals are at higher risk for thyroid diseases and cancer.
  • The risk of thyroid cancer is increased in people who received radiation therapy to the head and neck region during childhood.
  • People with autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto’s disease and Graves’ disease have a higher risk of thyroid cancer.
  • People living in iodine-deficient areas are at higher risk, especially for goiter and thyroid cancer.

How Is Thyroid Test Done?

The thyroid test is a series of blood tests used to check that the thyroid gland is working properly. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the front of the neck and produces hormones necessary for the energy production of cells in the body. Thyroid tests help determine whether the thyroid gland is overactive (hyperthyroidism) or underactive (hypothyroidism).

Thyroid testing is usually done by taking a blood sample. The patient receives blood from an appropriate vein by the laboratory technician. This blood sample is used to measure the levels of thyroid hormones.

A thyroid test usually measures the levels of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. These hormones are called thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Hormone levels show how active the thyroid gland is.

TSH is a hormone secreted from the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce hormones. The thyroid test also measures TSH levels to help assess how well the thyroid gland is working. If the TSH level is high, it usually indicates an underactive thyroid gland. If the TSH level is low, this indicates that the thyroid gland is overactive.

Thyroid test results are evaluated by your doctor and appropriate treatment is recommended according to the condition of the thyroid gland.

What Is Iodine (Atom) Therapy?

Iodine therapy is a method used to treat an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or thyroid cancer. This treatment uses a radioactive substance called radioactive iodine (RAI).

When radioactive iodine is taken into the thyroid gland, it damages thyroid cells and reduces their activity. This can correct conditions that cause the thyroid gland to be overactive and destroy thyroid cancer cells.

Iodine therapy is usually taken by mouth in the form of a capsule or liquid. Radioactive iodine enters the bloodstream and reaches the thyroid cells. The course of treatment can vary from a few weeks to several months, depending on the patient’s condition and the purpose of the treatment.

Iodine therapy can have some side effects, but they are usually mild and temporary. These side effects may include nausea, vomiting, changes in the sense of taste, and swelling of the salivary glands.

After iodine treatment, your doctor will do regular checkups to evaluate thyroid gland function and the effectiveness of the treatment.

How Is Thyroid Surgery Performed?

Thyroid surgery is a surgical method used to treat problems with the thyroid gland. This surgery can be performed as a complete or partial removal of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy).

Before thyroid surgery, your doctor will evaluate the patient’s condition and determine the appropriate type of surgery. Also, some tests may be done to check the patient’s readiness for surgery.

Thyroid surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia. This means that the patient will be unconscious and pain-free during the surgery.

In thyroid surgery, the surgeon makes an incision in the front of the neck to reach the thyroid gland. Next, it removes all or part of the thyroid gland. The duration and extent of the surgery may vary depending on the patient’s condition and the purpose of the surgery.

After thyroid surgery, the patient’s recovery process begins. During this process, it is normal for the patient to feel pain and discomfort. The doctor may recommend medications to control pain and reduce the risk of infection. The healing process can vary from a few weeks to several months, depending on the patient’s condition and the extent of the surgery.

After thyroid surgery, your doctor will make regular checks to evaluate the patient’s recovery and the function of the thyroid gland. If necessary, medication or other treatments for thyroid hormones may be recommended.

Thyroid Treatment Prices in Turkey

Turkey has succeeded in making its name known to the world with its investments and Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.

  • Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
  • Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
  • Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
  • Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
  • Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
  • Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
  • Easy transportation.
  • Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.

Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. We can see that patients and their relatives who want to come to Turkey are doing research on Thyroid Treatment Prices in Turkey. However, it would not be correct to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.

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