Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the formation, diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of cancer. Cancer is a disease that is increasing day by day in the world and can affect all age groups, from young children to children. Cancer types are classified according to their houses. Treatment of cancer in the early stages is more effective, easier, and more comfortable for the patient. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of cancer are lifesaving. Treatment options for cancer, which is a serious disease, are increasing day by day. Thanks to new surgical techniques, smart drugs, and radiotherapy methods, cancer has become a treatable disease even in advanced stages. However, ways of preventing cancer rather than treatment methods and detecting cancer in its early stages are important for the health of the patient and the treatment process. For this reason, people in the risk group should have regular health screenings.
Chemotherapy is a drug treatment for cancer diseases that mostly affects cancerous cells and aims to defeat cancer by preventing them from growing and multiplying. Chemotherapy applications can contain a single drug, or it can be applied in cures containing more than one drug, depending on the needs of the patient. While administering chemotherapy to a patient, the decision is made depending on the type of cancer, its stage, the spread of cancerous cells, and the general health of the patient. The purpose of chemotherapy applications is to prevent or slow the progression of cancer, prevent its spread to other parts of the body, and shrink the tumor by killing cancerous cells. Depending on the patient’s condition, chemotherapy can also be used together with other treatment methods such as surgery or radiotherapy. Even if the tumor is removed after some surgical treatments, chemotherapy can be used to prevent the spread of cancerous cells that may remain in the body and kill them. In addition, chemotherapy applications are used to shrink the tumor before some surgeries and thus to perform the surgery more effectively and easily. In the same way, it can be applied together with radiotherapy treatment, and combined treatment programs can be created before, after, and simultaneously with radiotherapy. Depending on the patient’s condition and the type of drug to be used, chemotherapy can be administered intravenously or orally in pill form. Intravenous chemotherapy is mixed with serum and given directly to the vein. Some patients undergoing a long chemotherapy program may require hospitalization. In chemotherapy applications by pill, the patient can continue the treatment at home. However, care should be taken in the use of drugs during the home treatment process, and the drugs should be used regularly in the required dosage. These treatment programs are planned specifically for the patient by oncology specialist physicians. Factors such as the duration of chemotherapy, its frequency, how many repetitions it will be applied, and the length of intervals to be given to treatment, if necessary, are vital for the treatment of the disease and should be performed by experts. For this reason, during the chemotherapy process, the patient and the physician should continue the treatment regularly in cooperation. Chemotherapy applications can have side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, weakness, oral problems, infection, bleeding, and skin problems. Nutritional programs, herbal solutions, and drug supplements can be recommended by the specialist physician to reduce these findings, or the patient can be referred to other specialties when necessary. Some side effects such as hair loss may be psychologically challenging for the patient, but it should be noted that these side effects are temporary, and these problems will disappear at the end of the treatment.
Breast cancer is a disease that occurs due to the uncontrolled proliferation of different cell groups in the breast tissue. Cancer is a disease that does not only affect the tissue in which it is located but can also spread to the surrounding tissues. For this reason, breast cancers often spread to surrounding tissues, especially affecting the lymph nodes. Since the lymph system is a system that spreads throughout the body, timely diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer are very important to prevent the spread of cancer to other body systems. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, especially in women. Risk factors for breast cancer can be listed as being in the post-menopausal period, having a family history of cancer as it may be genetically transmitted, having breast cancer before, having the first birth at an advanced age, smoking, nutritional disorders, and high weight. Early diagnosis is very important to prevent the spread to other body systems in breast cancer. Thanks to breast examinations that people can do on their own, they can detect cancer in its very early stages, shorten the treatment process and greatly increase its effectiveness. Findings such as a palpable mass in the breast, differences in size and shape that occur later between the two breasts, skin changes on the breast, and changes in the shape of the nipple can be a sign of breast cancer. In such cases, the person should consult a specialist physician. In addition, if breast cancer is detected in the family, it is important for early detection of possible cancer risks that other family members, especially sisters and mothers, who are related to the patient, should consult a specialist, and have cancer control. Breast cancers are examined in two groups cancers with the potential to spread and cancers without the potential to spread. The physician determines a treatment program according to the type, spread, and level of cancer. There are different treatment options such as surgical treatment, radiotherapy treatment, and drug treatment. Surgical procedures such as removing only the cancerous area by leaving the surrounding tissue are applied in non-dispersed type cancers that are the focal point. However, in very diffuse, non-focal type cancers, interventions can be applied to remove the entire breast tissue. Today, very good results are obtained in this type of surgery and improvements can be seen with rates of up to one hundred percent. In the same way, when there is a spread to the lymph nodes, it is also possible to remove the lymph by surgery. In line with the opinion of the physician, such surgical interventions and drug treatments or radiotherapy applications can be applied together. Breast cancer is a disease that is getting better and better with each passing day. In this direction, early diagnosis and treatment are lifesaving.
Colon and Rectum Cancer
Colon cancer is a disease caused by polyps that arise in the intestines and rectum. Colon cancer is a very serious disease and is one of the cancer types with a high mortality rate. This type of cancer, which is more common in men than women, poses a life-threatening risk in patients because it is difficult to detect. Because colon cancer does not show any symptoms in its early stages, patients sometimes only apply to the hospital when the disease progresses. Colon cancer with a delayed diagnosis can pose a life-threatening risk, as an early diagnosis in cancer treatment greatly affects the treatment process. The risk factors for colon cancer can be listed as the presence of polyps in the intestine, having a family history of colon cancer, advanced age, inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s, ulcerative colitis, and the presence of cancer in the patient. Even if colon cancer is cancer that gives few symptoms, as the polyps in the intestine grow and increase, symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, change in stool odor, anemia, blood mixed with stool, bleeding from the anus, abdominal pain, loss of appetite and weight loss may occur. Even if these symptoms do not directly indicate colon cancer, it is necessary to consult the relevant specialist physician to check the findings. Tests such as colonoscopy, occult blood in the stool, computerized tomography, and DNA tests in the stool are used for the diagnosis of colon cancer. Since colon cancer can progress insidiously, colonoscopy screening should be performed even if there are no findings in people aged 50 and over, and if no polyps are detected, colonoscopy screening should be repeated every 10 years. If there is a family history of colon cancer, colonoscopy screenings should be started from the age of 40, and if cancer is seen in the family at an early age, these screenings should be brought to an earlier age. Colonoscopy screenings can be applied every year for diseases that can cause colon cancer, such as ulcerative colitis. Such screenings provide early diagnosis and treatment, thus greatly reducing the life-threatening risk of colon cancer. Colon cancer is treated with different treatment methods such as surgery, drug therapy, and radiotherapy. While planning colon cancer treatment, the specialist physician evaluates the general health status of the patient, whether cancer has spread to other systems, the stage of cancer, and the affected areas. In this direction, it reveals the most accurate treatment procedure specific to the patient. The main treatment for colon cancer at almost every stage is surgical treatment. A part of the large intestine or, if necessary, a part of the rectum can be surgically removed from the location and location of cancer. Sometimes, it may be necessary to surgically remove the surrounding tissues or organs that spread. Colon cancer is a curable disease with early diagnosis. For this reason, it is vital for people at risk to have regular colonoscopy screenings.
Tumors of the spine and pelvis are often evaluated together due to their interconnected structures. Unlike other bone tumors, different knowledge, skills, and experience are needed in tumors of the spine and pelvis. It is a challenging region due to the anatomical structure of the region. Most of the tumors that develop in this region are tumors that come from another body region called a metastatic tumor and develop in this region. Sometimes tumors can also develop directly in the region. Tumors developing in these regions may present with pain and dysfunction.
Particular attention should be paid to night pains, pains that wake up from sleep. Thanks to the developing cancer treatment methods, the control of many types of internal organ cancer and the prolongation of their life span have increased the incidence of these types of tumors, which are mostly seen through metastasis. It has been determined that this type of metastatic tumor can be seen more frequently in people who have previously had diseases such as breast cancer, lung cancer, kidney cancer, and prostate cancer. For this reason, it is important for early diagnosis and treatment, especially for people who have had cancer before, to go to check-ups regularly.
Pelvic tumor symptoms can sometimes only manifest themselves in the form of low back and leg pain, while sometimes pain may develop in the coccyx region. In some cases, numbness and loss of strength in the legs can also be seen. Depending on the location and type of the tumor, many other symptoms may occur. Constipation, the feeling of fullness, and loss of sexual function are some of them. In cases where malignant tumors are seen, symptoms such as high fever and weight loss may occur in patients. Methods such as physical examination, blood test, ultrasonography, and computed tomography can be used for the detection of the pelvic tumor. Early diagnosis in cancer treatment is vital for the entire course of the disease.
If detected early, both the spread of cancer to surrounding tissues and further damage of cancerous tissue to healthy tissue can be prevented. In addition, early diagnosis is very important for increasing the effectiveness of surgical treatment. Surgical interventions are of great importance in the treatment of this type of tumor. Surgical removal of the tumor from healthy tissue is the primary intervention. Surgical intervention in pelvic tumors should be managed by a specialist team. The anatomy of the region contains many vital structures.
Particular attention should be paid to the structures in the abdomen, the arteries around the pelvis, the veins, and nerves. Due to the sensitivity of these structures, the team must have high surgical experience. Depending on the condition of the patient and the disease, vascular surgeons, general surgeons, urologists, and plastic surgeons may be needed. The functional status of the patient is important after pelvic tumor surgeries. When necessary, it should be ensured that the patient does not experience loss of function with physiotherapy and rehabilitation techniques. Thanks to the diagnosis and treatment methods developed today, pelvic tumors can be detected in an earlier period and much more successful surgical interventions can be performed. Although pelvic tumors are diseases with very serious risks, they can be successfully treated with early diagnosis and surgery.