Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that studies the hormones secreted in the human body, the effects of hormones, and the diseases of the hormonal system. Human metabolism and many functions in the bodywork through hormones. The pituitary gland, thyroid, pancreas, and many other organs in the body are involved in the secretion of these hormones. Hormone secretion levels of these organs may be higher or lower than necessary due to different reasons such as immune systems, structural disorders, and nutritional disorders. These abnormal changes in the hormonal level affect many functions in the body and cause health problems. They can affect many different body systems with diseases such as obesity, diabetes, goiter, and high blood pressure. Endocrinologists plan the detection and treatment of these diseases. In this way, patients can lead a long and healthy life by recovering or taking their diseases under control.
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when our body does not secrete enough insulin hormone or when the secreted insulin hormone cannot be used effectively. The insulin hormone, which can be produced without any problems in a healthy body, ensures that the glucose (sugar) we take with the foods we eat is transferred to the cell after mixing with the blood. Thus, glucose entering the cell becomes available for energy production for the body. However, in cases where the insulin hormone cannot be secreted or the secreted insulin hormone cannot be used, the glucose in the blood cannot pass into the cell. Therefore, the level of glucose in the blood begins to rise.
In a healthy person, the fasting blood glucose level does not exceed 120 mg/dl and the postprandial blood glucose level does not exceed 140 mg/dl. The fact that the blood sugar rate is above these levels due to insulin problems indicates that the person has diabetes onset or diabetes. An increase in the fasting blood glucose measurement resulting in 125 mg/dl can be considered an indicator of hidden sugar. If this level is above 125 mg/dl, it is an indicator of diabetes. Diabetes is divided into two groups Type 1 and Type 2. Of these, Type 1 diabetes mostly occurs at young ages and is caused by the deficiency of the insulin hormone.
As a result of damage by the person’s immune system to the cells in the organ called the pancreas, which produce the insulin hormone, these cells secrete the missing insulin hormone or stop the insulin hormone secretion completely. For this reason, Type 1 diabetes is not a disease that can be completely cured and eliminated. However, Type 1 diabetes can be controlled, and patients can lead a healthy life for many years, thanks to insulin supplements given externally by subcutaneous injection, regular nutrition, and regular physical activity. The most common symptoms of type 1 diabetes are urinating a lot and frequently, drinking a lot of water, and losing weight.
In addition, since Type 1 diabetes is a disease that cannot be eliminated, these patients should have regular health screenings and regularly measure their blood sugar so that other body systems are not damaged due to diabetes. On the contrary, Type 2 diabetes can be seen at any age and has an intense relationship with factors such as obesity, stress, nutritional disorders, insufficient physical activity, and a family history of diabetes. The first stage of type 2 diabetes treatment consists of interventions such as regular nutrition, regular exercise, lifestyle changes, and weight control. In cases where these are not sufficient, drug therapy and insulin injections can be applied to the treatment process in line with the direction of the physician. It is important to regularly monitor blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is a disease that can be controlled so that people with the disease can live for many years without any problems.
The thyroid is an organ located in front of the trachea and is responsible for the secretion of hormones for many functions in the body. Hormones secreted from the thyroid, mix with the blood, spread throughout the body, and affect very important metabolic processes throughout the body. Another hormone that triggers this hormone-secreting task of the thyroid gland is TSH. TSH hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland, a small structure in the middle of our brain, and mixes with the bloodstream and triggers the thyroid to secrete hormones. In some thyroid problems, when the thyroid does not secrete enough hormones, the pituitary secretes more TSH hormone to stimulate the thyroid more. This condition is called hypothyroidism and although the TSH level is very high in such patients, the level of hormones secreted by the thyroid is very low.
The most common symptoms in patients with hypothyroidism can be listed as weakness, constipation, hoarseness, dry skin, disruption in the menstrual cycle, weight gain, cold sensitivity, sweating, and insomnia. There may be different reasons for the occurrence of hypothyroidism in the person, so the physician can determine the source of the problem and control the disease with the appropriate drug treatment. However, if thyroid secretion occurs without any problems, the TSH level in the blood decreases and controls the stimulation of the thyroid. In this way, the body regulates the level of hormone secretion of the thyroid. Sometimes, excess thyroid secretion occurs due to pituitary or thyroid origin.
This condition is called hyperthyroidism. The most common symptoms of hyperthyroidism can be listed as heart palpitations, trembling in the hands, weight loss, irritability, excitement for no reason, emotionalization, excessive sweating, heat sensitivity, weakness, fatigue, hair loss, and menstrual irregularity. In the treatment of hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormone secretion can be reduced with thyroid drugs. In the case of hormonal balance, radioactive ion therapy can be applied. Another thyroid disease is goiter, which develops with the overgrowth of the thyroid gland. Goiter disease sometimes gives no symptoms, but sometimes it can give symptoms such as pain, cough, and shortness of breath. In the treatment of goiter, methods such as drugs, surgical interventions, and radioactive iodine treatment can be used in line with the physician’s opinion. As it can be understood from the symptoms that occur because of thyroid diseases in general, the thyroid is an organ with many different functions that affect many different systems in the human body. Therefore, the control of thyroid diseases is of great importance for the general health of the patient.
Pituitary diseases are an organ called the pituitary gland, located just below our brain, included in the endocrine system, which is our hormonal system. Through the hormones it secretes, it serves both many systems in the body and the stimulation of many other glands such as the thyroid gland and adrenal gland. It has a great role in the regulation of the endocrine system.
There are many different hormones secreted from the pituitary gland. The effects of these different hormones on the human body also vary. Through these hormones, many tasks such as regulating the mood of the person, activation of the thyroid gland, egg formation and estrogen secretion in women, sperm formation and testosterone secretion in men, growth hormone secretion, water absorption in the kidneys, contractions that ensure birth in women, and stimulation of the mammary glands are performed.
Pituitary gland diseases are serious diseases because of this close relationship of the pituitary gland with the rest of the endocrine system, its regulatory role, and its effects on many different systems of the body. Different diseases may occur depending on the deficiency or excess of different types of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Some of these can be listed as growth hormone deficiency, Cushing’s disease, acromegaly, gigantism, pituitary adenomas, and pituitary gland tumors. Pituitary adenomas and pituitary tumors can affect the pituitary in different ways due to the nature of the disease. In line with the influence of the pituitary, adenomas and tumors can sometimes cause hormonal imbalances and lead to other diseases.
Growth hormone deficiency can be seen congenitally in some patients, or it can occur because of another problem that occurs later, such as a tumor or head trauma in some patients. Dwarfism may occur in patients due to growth hormone deficiency, sexual development may not be completed on time, and the patient may experience other physical problems. Cushing’s disease, another pituitary problem, occurs due to the excessive secretion of the hormone ACTH secreted from the pituitary gland.
Excess secretion of this hormone also increases the hormone secretion in the adrenal glands and causes protein loss in the body. Due to this protein loss, the patient experiences muscle weakness, skin and bone sensitivities, and pain. Certain physical changes are also seen in people with Cushing’s disease.
Due to the accumulation of fat in the body, there is swelling in the face and abdomen, while the arms and legs are disproportionately weak compared to these areas. Acromegaly and gigantism, another pituitary disease, occur due to excessive secretion of growth hormones. While the growth hormone secreted in excess during childhood results in gigantism, the increase in growth hormone after the age of 30 results in acromegaly. The first symptoms of acromegaly can be listed as enlargement of the hands and feet, enlargement and protrusion of the forehead and chin, thickening of the skin, and enlargement of the nose and tongue. In addition to these physical changes, other problems such as vision problems, fatigue, and sexual reluctance also occur.
In gigantism, on the other hand, since it starts at a young age, excessive height growth and gigantism occur. Pituitary diseases are diseases that can cause serious health problems and cause permanent damage to the patient if left untreated. For this reason, people with pituitary problems need to start regular control and treatment with the relevant physician.