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What Is Cancer?

Cancer is the uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the body and their spread to surrounding tissues. While the life span and functions of healthy cells are regularly controlled, cancer cells disrupt this balance and continue to multiply continuously. Cancer is an important health problem that affects millions of people worldwide and causes deaths. In this article we have written for you, we will try to give information about general information about cancer, the science of oncology, types of cancer, and risk factors in cancer.

What Is Oncology?

Oncology is the science of cancer and includes studies on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cancer. Oncologists are specialized doctors involved in the treatment of cancer patients. Oncology is subdivided into radiation oncology, medical oncology and surgical oncology. Radiation oncology uses radiation to destroy cancer cells, while medical oncology uses drugs and chemotherapy to treat cancer. Surgical oncology deals with the surgical removal of cancerous tissues.

What Are The Types Of Cancer?

Cancer types are classified according to their starting point and cell type. The main types of cancer are as follows:

Carcinoma: It is a type of cancer that originates from epithelial cells. Breast, lung, colon, pancreatic, and prostate cancers fall into this group.

Sarcomas: A type of cancer that starts in connective and supportive tissues, bone, cartilage, fat and muscle tissue.

Lymphoma and myeloma: These are cancers that start in the lymphatic system and bone marrow. Lymphoma starts in the lymph nodes, while myeloma starts in plasma cells. :

Leukemia: A type of cancer that starts in the blood cells in the blood and bone marrow.

Cancers of the brain and nervous system: Cancers that start in the central nervous system and brain.

What Are The Risk Factors for Cancer?

Genetic and environmental factors play a role in cancer development. Risk factors for cancer can be listed as follows;

  • Age,
  • Genetic predisposition,
  • Smoking and alcohol use,
  • Nutrition and physical activity,
  • Viral and bacterial infections,
  • Exposure to radiation and chemicals,

Cancer is a complex disease caused by many factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment methods can improve quality of life and survival. Therefore, regular health checks and reducing risk factors are of great importance.

How Does Cancer Spread?

Cancer is a disease caused by the uncontrolled and abnormal proliferation of cells in the body. Cancerous cells grow locally, initially forming a tumor. Later, these cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. The process of cancer spreading is called metastasis and is more common in later stages of cancer.

There are three main mechanisms by which cancer spreads:

Local spread: Cancerous cells grow by spreading directly into surrounding tissues and organs. This process can cause damage to the surrounding tissues and organs.

Spread through the lymphatic system: Cancerous cells can spread to other parts of the body by entering the lymph nodes and then the lymphatic system. Lymph nodes play an important role in fighting infection and disease by filtering lymph fluid throughout the body. The accumulation of cancerous cells in the lymph nodes can cause the disease to progress and the lymph nodes to swell.

Spread through the bloodstream: Cancerous cells can enter the blood vessels and be transported to other parts of the body. This process causes cancerous cells to reach distant organs and forms new tumors, causing the disease to progress.

What Are The Symptoms Of Cancer?

The early signs of cancer can vary depending on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. Some common cancer symptoms are as follows;

  • Swelling or mass,
  • Pain,
  • Skin changes,
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss,
  • Fatigue
  • Bleeding and bruising,
  • Infections
  • Digestive problems,
  • Respiratory problems,

What Are The Rare Symptoms Of Cancer?

There are also rare symptoms of cancer and these symptoms may vary depending on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. Rare cancer symptoms can be listed as follows;

  • Cancer can cause neurological symptoms such as headaches, visual disturbances, balance problems, and seizures.
  • Cancer can cause hormone imbalances, which can lead to weight changes, skin problems, and mood changes.
  • Cancer can cause pain and weakness in the bones, leading to fractures.
  • Cancer can cause problems with urination, sexual dysfunction and infertility.
  • Cancer can cause discoloration, rashes and peeling of the skin and nails.

Cancer symptoms can also indicate other health problems. Therefore, if you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for a definitive diagnosis.

How Is Cancer Diagnosed?

Cancer is the general name for diseases caused by the uncontrolled and abnormal proliferation of cells in any part of the body. A cancer diagnosis is performed by different methods depending on the type and stage of the disease. Some methods used for cancer diagnosis can be explained as follows;

The doctor performs a physical examination to check for any abnormalities in the patient’s body. This is done to detect lumps, masses, or skin changes.

To diagnose cancer, it is necessary to examine samples of blood, urine and other body fluids. These tests can help detect the presence of cancer cells or cancer-related proteins.

Imaging tests such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and ultrasound help doctors determine the location and size of cancerous cells.

A biopsy is the most definitive method for diagnosing cancer. Doctors take a small sample of tissue from a suspicious area and check for the presence of cancer cells under a microscope.

Some types of cancer are caused by genetic mutations. Genetic tests can help identify the origin of the disease and assess the risk to family members.

What Is Cancer Staging?

Cancer staging is a system used to determine how widespread cancer is and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. Cancer staging helps to predict the course of the disease, determine the treatment plan and compare patients’ treatment outcomes. Cancer staging is usually as follows;

Stage 0: Cancer cells are found only at the starting point and have not spread to surrounding tissues.

Stage I: Cancer cells affect a small area at the point of origin and have not spread to surrounding tissues.

Stage II and III: Cancer cells affect a larger area and have spread to surrounding tissues and/or lymph nodes.

Stage IV: Cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body and are called metastatic cancer.

What Is Metastasis?

Metastasis is the process by which cancer cells spread from their starting point to other parts of the body. Cancer cells can move around the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system and form new tumors. Metastasis is an important factor in determining the stage of cancer and treatment options.

Metastatic cancer usually requires more aggressive treatment and has a worse prognosis. Preventing and controlling metastasis is an important goal in cancer treatment. Treatments to prevent or delay the spread of cancer cells may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapies.

Cancer Treatment: Various Methods and Processes

Cancer is a disease caused by the uncontrolled proliferation and growth of cells in the body. Cancer treatment varies depending on the type and stage of the disease, the general health status, and the age of the patient. This article we have written for you provides information about the main methods used in cancer treatment.


Surgical treatment is the process of physically removing cancerous cells and tumors from the body. The cancerous tissue can also be exposed to the surrounding healthy tissue and this can help prevent the disease from recurring. Surgery is an effective treatment, especially when the cancer is at an early stage. However, in some cases, surgery may also be needed in advanced stages of cancer.


Radiotherapy uses high-energy radiation to destroy or shrink cancer cells. This treatment method prevents cancer cells from multiplying by damaging their DNA. Radiotherapy can be effective when the cancer is concentrated in a particular area. This treatment can be given before or after surgery, in combination with chemotherapy, or alone.


Chemotherapy is a treatment using drugs that prevent cancer cells from growing and multiplying. These drugs can help shrink tumors, prevent cancer from spreading or relieve symptoms of the disease. Chemotherapy can be administered in the form of pills taken by mouth or drugs given through a vein. This treatment is usually given in cycles, giving the body time to recover between each cycle.


Immunotherapy is a treatment that helps the body fight cancer cells by strengthening the immune system. This treatment works by increasing the number of immune cells that recognize and destroy cancer cells, or by making cancer cells more visible to the immune system. Immunotherapy can be used to treat various types of cancer and can be used in combination with other treatment methods.

Targeted Therapies

Targeted therapies focus on specific molecules or intracellular processes that are important for cancer cells to grow and multiply. This treatment method damages cancer cells but does less damage to healthy cells. Targeted therapies are often used to treat advanced cancers or when other treatment methods are ineffective.

Hormone Therapy

Hormone therapy is a treatment to prevent the growth and spread of hormone-sensitive types of cancer. This treatment works by lowering hormone levels in the body or blocking the ability of cancer cells to respond to hormones. Hormone therapy is particularly effective for hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer.

The methods used to treat cancer vary depending on the type and stage of the disease and the patient’s condition. These treatments, alone or in combination, aim to control cancer, alleviate symptoms and improve the patient’s quality of life. During the cancer treatment process, it is important for patients to be in close communication with their doctors and to comply with the treatment plan.

Cancer Treatment Prices in Turkey

Turkey has managed to announce its name to the world with its investments and studies in the field of health. Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.

  • Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
  • Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
  • Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
  • Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
  • Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
  • Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
  • Easy transportation.
  • Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.

Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. We can see that patients and their relatives who want to come to Turkey are doing research on Cancer Treatment Prices in Turkey. However, it would not be right to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.

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