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What Is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide and can rarely be seen in men. This type of cancer, which starts with abnormal and uncontrolled growth of breast cells, can be successfully controlled and treated with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment methods. Having information about breast cancer, learning the risk factors, and applying prevention methods will help to live a more conscious and healthy life against this disease. In this article we have written for you, we will try to answer all the questions about breast cancer.

Why Does Breast Cancer Occur?

Although the exact cause of breast cancer is unknown, it is thought to be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Some genetic mutations, the presence of genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 that increase the risk of breast cancer, family history of breast cancer, and the environmental conditions in which the person lives are effective in the emergence of this disease. In addition, factors such as hormonal changes, age, postmenopausal period and radiation can also cause the development of breast cancer.

What Are Breast Cancer Risk Factors?

Breast cancer risk factors can vary from person to person and some can be controlled while others cannot. Some of the breast cancer risk factors can be explained as follows;

  • The risk of breast cancer increases with age.
  • Women are at higher risk than men.
  • The risk increases in people with breast cancer cases in the family.
  • Gene mutations such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase the risk.
  • Starting menstruation at an early age and late menopause increase the risk.
  • Hormone replacement therapy and use of birth control pills may affect the risk.
  • Alcohol and smoking can increase the risk of breast cancer.
  • Low physical activity and overweight are risk factors.

What Can Be Done To Prevent Breast Cancer?

The following measures can be taken to prevent breast cancer;

  • Increase the level of physical activity by exercising regularly.
  • Eat a healthy and balanced diet, and give importance to fruit and vegetable consumption.
  • Reduce or quit alcohol and smoking.
  • Use hormone therapies and birth control pills under the supervision of a doctor.
  • Have regular check-ups under the supervision of a doctor, taking into account family history and genetic factors.
  • Contribute to breast cancer awareness and inform the people around you.

Remember that early diagnosis is the most important factor in the fight against breast cancer. Therefore, you can protect your health and lead a more conscious life against breast cancer with regular medical check-ups and breast self-examination.

What Are The Types Of Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the breast tissue and is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth. Breast cancer types are classified according to the starting point and the characteristics of cancerous cells. Breast cancer types can be explained as follows;

  • Ductal Carcinoma in situ (DCIS); DCIS, the earliest stage of breast cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the breast ducts and remains limited within the duct. Its treatment is very successful when diagnosed early.
  • Ductal Carcinoma (IDC); IDC, which constitutes approximately 80% of breast cancers, is a type of cancer that starts in the breast ducts and can spread to surrounding tissues.
  • Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC); ILC, which constitutes approximately 10% of breast cancers, is a type of cancer that starts in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and can spread to surrounding tissues.
  • Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Inflammatory breast cancer, a rare and aggressive type of breast cancer, occurs with symptoms such as redness, swelling and temperature increase in the breast.
  • Paget’s Disease; It is a rare type of breast cancer that affects the skin and nipple tissue in the nipple. It usually manifests itself with symptoms such as redness, crusting and itching around the nipple.

What Are The Symptoms of Breast Cancer?

Symptoms of breast cancer may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer. Some symptoms of breast cancer are as follows;

  • Palpable mass or swelling in the breast tissue,
  • Change in breast shape or size,
  • Collapse, retraction, or deformity of the nipple, Discharge from the nipple (bloody or transparent),
  • Redness, crusting or peeling around the nipple,
  • Pitting of the breast skin, orange peel appearance,
  • Pain in the breast or armpit,
  • Redness,
  • Swelling and increased temperature of the breast skin (signs of inflammatory breast cancer),

How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosis Performed?

There are various methods used for breast cancer diagnosis. Some methods used for breast cancer diagnosis;

  • Physical Examination,
  • Mammography,
  • Ultrasonography,
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI),
  • Biopsy,
  • Pathological Examination,

How Often Should Breast Screening Be Performed?

Breast screening is an important health service that helps detect breast cancer early. The frequency of breast screening varies depending on various factors such as age, genetic factors and personal risks. However, there are some generally accepted recommendations;

Women aged 20-39 years should have a clinical breast examination every three years. This examination involves the doctor manually checking the breast and armpit areas. It is also recommended that women in this age group perform breast self-examination and monitor changes in their breasts every month.

For women aged 40 years and older, an annual clinical breast examination and mammogram are recommended. Mammography is a low-dose radiation technique that takes an X-ray image of the breast. This screening method can help detect small and early cancers.

For particularly high-risk women, more frequent screening and additional imaging modalities (for example, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound) may be recommended. High-risk individuals include women with genetic mutations (e.g. BRCA1 or BRCA2), family history or previous radiation therapy.

By talking to your doctor about the frequency of breast screening, you can determine the best plan for you.

Stages Of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer stages help determine how far the cancer has spread and treatment options. The stages are as follows;

Stage 0: Cancer is found only in the milk glands or ducts inside the breast tissue and has not spread to surrounding tissues. This condition is called “in situ”.

Stage 1: The cancer is confined to the breast and the tumor is smaller than 2 centimeters (cm). The cancerous cells have not spread to the lymph nodes or have spread very little.

Stage 2 Cancer is confined to the breast and the tumor is between 2-5 cm. Cancerous cells may have spread to the lymph nodes.

Stage 3 The cancer is confined to the breast but the tumour is larger than 5 cm. Cancerous cells have spread to the lymph nodes and accumulated in the armpit area.

Stage 4 The cancer has spread to other organs and body parts. This is called “metastatic” and treatment options are more limited.

How Is Breast Cancer Treated?

Breast cancer treatment varies depending on the stage and type of cancer, the patient’s general health and preferences. Treatment options may include;

  • Surgery,
  • Radiation therapy,
  • Chemotherapy,
  • Hormone therapy,
  • Targeted therapy,

Treatment of breast cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach and more than one treatment method is usually used. The treatment plan and course are determined depending on the patient’s condition and the doctor’s recommendations.

Breast Cancer Treatment Prices in Turkey

Turkey has managed to announce its name to the world with its investments and studies in the field of health. Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.

  • Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
  • Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
  • Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
  • Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
  • Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
  • Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
  • Easy transportation.
  • Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.

Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. We can see that patients and relatives of patients who want to come to Turkey are doing research on Breast Cancer Treatment Prices in Turkey. However, it would not be right to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.

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