Obesity is the increase in body weight above healthy levels according to the height of the person due to the excessive increase in the fat mass in the human body compared to the lean mass such as muscle and bone. Obesity is defined by the World Health Organization as excessive accumulation of fat in the body that impairs health. For this reason, when defining obesity, it is not sufficient to have high body weight for the person’s height. The main reason for this disproportionate increase in body weight is fat mass, which is defined as obesity. Proper nutrition is very important for the continuation of human life, the growth of the body, and the renewal, and functioning of tissues. Balanced and correct nutrition can be achieved through adequate intake of the nutrients necessary for healthy body development.
To fill one’s stomach, to eat because one craves, to eat to suppress stress, and to suppress hunger is not proper nutrition. Obesity is more common today, as societies change their diet, portions, and daily physical activities. Therefore, to avoid obesity and control obesity, daily physical activities should be increased, meals should be planned in a balanced way and it should be ensured that the energy consumed and the energy spent are kept in balance.
In some cases, obesity can be caused by hormonal reasons, genetic reasons, or other diseases, apart from nutritional disorders. Considering such situations, people who cannot achieve weight control should consult a doctor to control and treat obesity and prevent obesity from causing other serious problems.
After determining the underlying cause of obesity, obesity can be successfully intervened with many different treatment methods. Although many methods have been developed for the treatment of obesity today, the most important task in the fight against obesity is to prevent obesity before it starts.
Therefore, to prevent obesity, establishing a balanced diet habit and acquiring adequate physical activity habits should begin in childhood. To gain these habits and awareness in childhood, the family, school, and environment should have sufficient knowledge about balanced nutrition and physical activity.
Obesity treatment is a difficult, long-term process that requires intensive patient participation and continuity. In addition, many different problems can lie based on obesity, and obesity alone can cause many other problems in the body. For this reason, obesity treatment should be carried out by a multidisciplinary team consisting of different health professionals such as physicians, dietitians, and physiotherapists.
Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of obesity. There are many different treatment options such as diet therapy, drug therapy, exercise therapy, behavior change therapy, and surgical treatment. In some cases, different treatment methods can be applied simultaneously or sequentially. Obesity can be successfully treated today, thanks to the patient’s willing and determined participation, the continuity of the treatment, and the correct formation of the team that creates the treatment. For this reason, in the case of obesity, a doctor should be consulted, and random drug use, diet, and exercise should not be attempted.
Bariatric surgery is a method that can be applied in the treatment of obese patients whose body mass index is above a certain limit. Obesity surgery, diet change, exercise programs, lifestyle changes, etc. in the treatment of obesity. It is a method that can be applied when improvement cannot be achieved with applications. Surgical treatment can be considered for patients with a body mass index of 40 and above and for patients with different chronic diseases accompanying obesity.
There are different surgical methods applied in obesity surgery. Gastric balloon, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy are the most common surgeries. Which bariatric surgery will be preferred in patients is decided through preliminary examination and tests. Gastric balloon application is an endoscopic method. A balloon is placed endoscopically in the stomach of the patient under sedation and the internal volume of the stomach is reduced. The gastric balloon, which can remain in the stomach for a maximum of one year, can also be removed by the endoscopic method. Gastric bypass surgery is a method in which the stomach is divided into two parts and the small part continues to function. The small stomach piece is connected directly to the small intestine by bypassing the duodenum section. Gastric bypass surgery, which is applied with the closed surgery method, is one of the most frequently applied methods. After the surgery, the patient’s diet should be changed, and additional vitamin supplements should be used. Gastric sleeve surgery is a method that aims to reduce the volume of the stomach by removing a large part of the stomach, including the fundus. The hunger hormone secreted by the patients after the surgery is also reduced. The surgery is performed using a closed method and patients need to be followed up in the hospital for two or three days post-operatively. After the surgery, the patient’s diet is completely changed, and new habits are gained. It is necessary to feed only liquid foods for two weeks, and then to be fed with soft foods for two weeks. In addition, patients should consume small portions throughout their life after surgery.
Obesity surgeries are often performed under general anesthesia and closed surgical methods (laparoscopic). After the operation, the patient is asked to stay in the hospital for observation purposes. The treatment process continues even after the patient is discharged from the hospital. In this process, it is important that the doctor who performs the surgery, the dietitian who will organize the post-operative nutrition plan, and the physiotherapists, who will ensure that individuals gain regular exercise habits, work in cooperation.
Obesity is a person’s body weight level higher than healthy levels for his/her height because of too much increase in body fat and excessive increase in body fat compared to lean body mass. Obesity is calculated by dividing the body weight in kilograms of the person, called the Body Mass Index, by the square of the height in meters. The stages of obesity are determined according to the result of this calculation.
If the body mass index of the person is below 18.5, it is underweight, between 18.5 and 24.9 is normal, between 25 and 29.9 is overweight, between 30 and 34.9 is obese, and above 35 is morbidly obese, which can shorten the life span of the person and cause serious diseases. Obesity is a serious disease that can harm all body systems if left untreated. Excess adipose tissue accumulated in the body releases health effects that will affect the whole body, and some such secretions affect appetite and trigger obesity even more. Thus, obese patients can enter a vicious cycle that will further the disease. Obesity can occur for many different reasons such as nutritional disorders, lifestyle, psychological problems, insufficient physical activity, and hormonal diseases. Determining the underlying cause of obesity is important for the treatment process of obesity.
Since obesity can affect almost every system of the body and can develop due to many different reasons, health professionals in many different fields such as endocrinology specialists, psychiatry specialists, cardiologists, general surgeons, dietitians, and physiotherapists should work together in the treatment process. In line with the determination of the underlying cause of obesity, nutrition program, exercise, lifestyle changes, drug therapy, and, when necessary, surgical treatment can be applied to the patient.
Since morbid obesity can cause fatal diseases and shorten the life span of the patient, diet therapy should be applied as the first treatment option, but this treatment should not be continued in cases where diet therapy is unsuccessful twice. In such cases, the most effective treatment is bariatric surgery, and not delaying the surgery is important in terms of controlling the patient’s life-threatening risk. Obesity is a disease that is common today and is increasing day by day due to a sedentary lifestyle and unbalanced nutrition. Even though obesity is a serious disease, there are many treatment options for obesity today and if it is controlled, patients can lead a problem-free life.