Neurosurgery is a branch of medicine related to the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases that need to be treated surgically. The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that surround the body. All internal and external perception, movement, speech, learning, thinking, organ activities, and all other body functions are regulated and functioned by the nervous system.

The brain, spinal cord, and the entire nervous system have very sensitive and complex structures. Although these structures in the human body are in sheltered areas and are surrounded by many body structures, they can be damaged by many different diseases and trauma-like conditions, causing serious health problems. Nervous system diseases can originate directly from the nervous system, but they can also develop from the surrounding tissues.

When the integrity of the nervous system, which has a sensitive structure and is in contact with all other body systems, is disrupted and disease develops in the system, it can cause problems in many other body systems. The treatment of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as stroke, stroke, hernia, tumors developing in both the cerebrospinal tissue and surrounding tissues, circulatory problems in the vessels feeding the nervous system, cerebral hemorrhage, and cerebrospinal trauma due to accidents are performed by neurosurgeons. is done.

Apart from these, sometimes there may be congenital cerebrospinal problems. Neurosurgeons are also involved in the treatment of such diseases that can be seen in children. As in many diseases, it is important to prevent the disease before the disease occurs in the diseases that neurosurgery deals with. Although prevention methods cannot always prevent the formation of the disease, it is very important because it slows the progression of the disease and facilitates its treatment.

Although some diseases show improvement after neurosurgery treatment, recovery may not be seen immediately after surgery due to brain and spinal cord structure. Depending on the type of disease, the recovery of the brain and spinal cord injury depends on the types of treatment to be applied after surgery. These types of treatment can be listed as diet programs suitable for the disease, physiotherapy, and rehabilitation programs. The patient’s nutrition, rehabilitation process, psychological state, patience, and continuity in treatment are very important in brain and spinal cord injuries, the recovery period of which can sometimes be difficult and long. In addition, early diagnosis is of vital importance in the brain and spinal cord injuries.

The sooner the surgery is performed in the presence of disease and the sooner the treatment is started, the easier the treatment process of the disease, the less the possibility of sequelae, and the higher the success rate of the treatment. As the disease progresses, the damage it will cause can affect many other systems, deteriorating the general condition of the patient and creating life-threatening risks. For this reason, people at risk should have regular check-ups and pay attention to their eating habits and daily physical activities. Today, neurosurgery treatments have achieved a great deal of success thanks to the developing diagnosis and treatment techniques.

Pituitary Diseases

Hipofiz Hastaliklari Min

Pituitary diseases are an organ called the pituitary gland, located just below our brain, included in the endocrine system, which is our hormonal system. Through the hormones it secretes, it serves both many systems in the body and the stimulation of many other glands such as the thyroid gland and adrenal gland. It has a great role in the regulation of the endocrine system.

There are many different hormones secreted from the pituitary gland. The effects of these different hormones on the human body also vary. Through these hormones, many tasks such as regulating the mood of the person, activation of the thyroid gland, egg formation and estrogen secretion in women, sperm formation and testosterone secretion in men, growth hormone secretion, water absorption in the kidneys, contractions that ensure birth in women, and stimulation of the mammary glands are performed.

Pituitary gland diseases are serious diseases because of this close relationship of the pituitary gland with the rest of the endocrine system, its regulatory role, and its effects on many different systems of the body. Different diseases may occur depending on the deficiency or excess of different types of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Some of these can be listed as growth hormone deficiency, Cushing’s disease, acromegaly, gigantism, pituitary adenomas, and pituitary gland tumors. Pituitary adenomas and pituitary tumors can affect the pituitary in different ways due to the nature of the disease. In line with the influence of the pituitary, adenomas and tumors can sometimes cause hormonal imbalances and lead to other diseases.

Growth hormone deficiency can be seen congenitally in some patients, or it can occur because of another problem that occurs later, such as a tumor or head trauma in some patients. Dwarfism may occur in patients due to growth hormone deficiency, sexual development may not be completed on time, and the patient may experience other physical problems. Cushing’s disease, another pituitary problem, occurs due to the excessive secretion of the hormone ACTH secreted from the pituitary gland.

Excess secretion of this hormone also increases the hormone secretion in the adrenal glands and causes protein loss in the body. Due to this protein loss, the patient experiences muscle weakness, skin and bone sensitivities, and pain. Certain physical changes are also seen in people with Cushing’s disease.

Due to the accumulation of fat in the body, there is swelling in the face and abdomen, while the arms and legs are disproportionately weak compared to these areas. Acromegaly and gigantism, another pituitary disease, occur due to excessive secretion of growth hormones. While the growth hormone secreted in excess during childhood results in gigantism, the increase in growth hormone after the age of 30 results in acromegaly. The first symptoms of acromegaly can be listed as enlargement of the hands and feet, enlargement and protrusion of the forehead and chin, thickening of the skin, and enlargement of the nose and tongue. In addition to these physical changes, other problems such as vision problems, fatigue, and sexual reluctance also occur.

In gigantism, on the other hand, since it starts at a young age, excessive height growth and gigantism occur. Pituitary diseases are diseases that can cause serious health problems and cause permanent damage to the patient if left untreated. For this reason, people with pituitary problems need to start regular control and treatment with the relevant physician.

Pelvic Tumor

Pelvis Legen Kemigi Tumoru Min

Tumors of the spine and pelvis are often evaluated together due to their interconnected structures. Unlike other bone tumors, different knowledge, skills, and experience are needed in tumors of the spine and pelvis. It is a challenging region due to the anatomical structure of the region. Most of the tumors that develop in this region are tumors that come from another body region called a metastatic tumor and develop in this region. Sometimes tumors can also develop directly in the region. Tumors developing in these regions may present with pain and dysfunction.

Particular attention should be paid to night pains, pains that wake up from sleep. Thanks to the developing cancer treatment methods, the control of many types of internal organ cancer and the prolongation of their life span have increased the incidence of these types of tumors, which are mostly seen through metastasis. It has been determined that this type of metastatic tumor can be seen more frequently in people who have previously had diseases such as breast cancer, lung cancer, kidney cancer, and prostate cancer. For this reason, it is important for early diagnosis and treatment, especially for people who have had cancer before, to go to check-ups regularly.

Pelvic tumor symptoms can sometimes only manifest themselves in the form of low back and leg pain, while sometimes pain may develop in the coccyx region. In some cases, numbness and loss of strength in the legs can also be seen. Depending on the location and type of the tumor, many other symptoms may occur. Constipation, the feeling of fullness, and loss of sexual function are some of them. In cases where malignant tumors are seen, symptoms such as high fever and weight loss may occur in patients. Methods such as physical examination, blood test, ultrasonography, and computed tomography can be used for the detection of the pelvic tumor. Early diagnosis in cancer treatment is vital for the entire course of the disease.

If detected early, both the spread of cancer to surrounding tissues and further damage of cancerous tissue to healthy tissue can be prevented. In addition, early diagnosis is very important for increasing the effectiveness of surgical treatment. Surgical interventions are of great importance in the treatment of this type of tumor. Surgical removal of the tumor from healthy tissue is the primary intervention. Surgical intervention in pelvic tumors should be managed by a specialist team. The anatomy of the region contains many vital structures.

Particular attention should be paid to the structures in the abdomen, the arteries around the pelvis, the veins, and nerves. Due to the sensitivity of these structures, the team must have high surgical experience. Depending on the condition of the patient and the disease, vascular surgeons, general surgeons, urologists, and plastic surgeons may be needed. The functional status of the patient is important after pelvic tumor surgeries. When necessary, it should be ensured that the patient does not experience loss of function with physiotherapy and rehabilitation techniques. Thanks to the diagnosis and treatment methods developed today, pelvic tumors can be detected in an earlier period and much more successful surgical interventions can be performed. Although pelvic tumors are diseases with very serious risks, they can be successfully treated with early diagnosis and surgery.