Rectal cancer is a type of cancer characterized by malignant tumors that develop in the rectum at the end of the digestive system. This type of cancer is common worldwide and is more common in individuals over the age of 50. While rectal cancer can be successfully treated with early diagnosis and correct treatment methods, it can be life-threatening in advanced stages. In this article we have written for you, we will try to give information about the causes, symptoms, stages and surgery process of rectal cancer.
- What Is Rectal Cancer?
- What Are the Causes of Rectal Cancer?
- What Are The Symptoms of Rectal Cancer?
- What Are The Stages of Rectal Cancer?
- Who Constitutes The Risk Group In Rectal Cancer?
- How Is Rectal Cancer Diagnosed?
- How Is Rectal Cancer Treated?
- How Is Rectal Cancer Surgery Performed?
- Rectal Cancer Treatment Prices in Turkey
What Is Rectal Cancer?
Rectal cancer is cancer that occurs in the rectum, which forms the last 15 centimeters of the large intestine and allows the excretion of feces. It usually starts with malignant tumors called adenocarcinoma and can spread to surrounding tissues and organs over time. Rectal cancer and colon cancer are together called colorectal cancer, but both have different characteristics and treatment methods.
What Are the Causes of Rectal Cancer?
Although the exact cause of rectal cancer is unknown, some factors are thought to contribute to the development of cancer. These factors are as follows;
- Individuals with a family history of rectal cancer have a higher risk of developing cancer.
- Rectal cancer is usually seen in individuals aged 50 years and older.
- High fat and red meat consumption, consumption of low fiber foods may increase the risk of rectal cancer.
- Individuals who do not exercise regularly have a higher risk of rectal cancer.
- Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption are among the factors that increase the risk of rectal cancer.
What Are The Symptoms of Rectal Cancer?
Symptoms of rectal cancer may vary depending on the stage and size of the cancer. While it may not give symptoms in the early stages, the following symptoms may be seen in later stages;
- Change in defecation habits,
- Blood or mucus in the feces,
- Pain or discomfort in the abdomen and rectum,
- Severe gas and bloating,
- Weight loss and weakness,
- Symptoms of anemia (anemia),
In case of suspicion of rectal cancer, the necessary screening and diagnostic methods should be applied to a specialist as soon as possible. Early diagnosis is very important for the successful treatment of cancer.
What Are The Stages of Rectal Cancer?
Rectal cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the rectum located at the end of the large intestine and can spread to other organs over time. The stages of rectal cancer are important in determining how far the cancer has spread and treatment options. The stages of rectal cancer are as follows;
Stage 0; At this stage, cancer is found only in the cells on the inner surface of the rectum and has not yet spread deeper. Stage 0 rectal cancer is usually associated with polyps found incidentally during colonoscopy.
Stage 1; Cancer cells have spread to the inner layer of the rectum, but have not yet spread to the lymph nodes or other organs. Stage 1 rectal cancer can usually be successfully managed with early detection and treatment.
Stage 2; At this stage, the cancer has spread to the wall of the rectum and reached the surrounding fatty tissue, but has not yet spread to the lymph nodes or other organs. Methods such as surgery and radiotherapy can be used to treat stage 2 rectal cancer.
Stage 3; Cancer cells have spread to the wall of the rectum and reached the nearby lymph nodes. Stage 3 rectal cancer treatment usually includes combined treatment methods such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Stage 4; At this stage, cancer has spread from the rectum to other organs, especially the liver and lungs. Combined treatment methods such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapies can be used for the treatment of stage 4 rectal cancer.
Who Constitutes The Risk Group In Rectal Cancer?
The risk of rectal cancer varies depending on factors such as age, genetic factors, lifestyle and health status. People who constitute the risk group of rectal cancer are as follows;
- People aged 50 and over,
- Family history,
- Genetic syndromes,
- Inflammatory bowel disease,
- Lifestyle factors,
How Is Rectal Cancer Diagnosed?
Rectal cancer can be diagnosed by evaluation of symptoms, physical examination and various diagnostic tests. The methods used for the diagnosis of rectal cancer are as follows;
- Digital rectal examination,
- Computed tomography (CT) colonography,
- Blood tests,
- Imaging tests,
After a diagnosis of rectal cancer is made, doctors may perform further tests and evaluations to determine the stage of the cancer and plan appropriate treatment options.
How Is Rectal Cancer Treated?
Rectal cancer is a malignant tumor that forms at the end of the large intestine. Treatment methods of rectal cancer vary depending on the stage of the disease, the general health status of the patient and other factors. In general, the treatment of rectal cancer is carried out with the following methods;
The most commonly used method in the treatment of rectal cancer is surgery. The surgery aims to remove the tumor completely. Different techniques such as laparoscopic surgery, robotic surgery and open surgery can be used among surgical methods.
Radiotherapy uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancerous cells or slow their growth. In the treatment of rectal cancer, radiotherapy is usually applied before or after surgery. Pre-surgical radiotherapy helps to reduce the size of the tumor and increase the success of the surgery, while post-surgical radiotherapy is aimed at preventing cancerous cells from recurring.
Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to prevent the growth and spread of cancer cells. In the treatment of rectal cancer, chemotherapy is usually applied before and after surgery. Pre-surgical chemotherapy helps to reduce the size of the tumor, while post-surgical chemotherapy is aimed at preventing cancer cells from recurring.
Targeted therapies use drugs for specific molecular targets to inhibit the growth and spread of cancer cells. Targeted therapies in the treatment of rectal cancer are usually used in advanced patients and in patients who do not respond to other treatment methods.
Immunotherapy is a treatment method used to make the immune system more effective against cancer cells. Immunotherapy in the treatment of rectal cancer is usually used in advanced stage patients and in patients who do not respond to other treatment methods.
How Is Rectal Cancer Surgery Performed?
Rectal cancer surgery is the process of removing the tumor and surrounding healthy tissue. The aim of the surgery is to completely remove the cancerous cells and the patient can maintain normal bowel functions. Rectal cancer surgeries are performed in the following ways;
Low anterior resection (LAR); This surgery is applied for tumors in the upper part of the rectum. The surgeon removes the tumor and surrounding tissue, then connects the healthy remaining part of the large intestine to the anus.
Abdominoperineal resection (APR); This surgery is performed for tumors in the lower part of the rectum. The surgeon removes the tumor, rectum and anus. The healthy remaining part of the large intestine is connected to the abdominal wall with a stoma and a colostomy bag is used for the patient to defecate.
Sphincter sparing surgery; This surgery aims to maintain the normal defecation function of the patient by preserving the anus muscles. Depending on the location of the tumour, techniques such as low anterior resection or local excision may be used.
Laparoscopic and robotic surgery; Laparoscopic and robotic surgery allows rectal cancer surgeries to be performed with less invasive methods. These techniques increase patient comfort with smaller incisions and faster recovery times.
The success of rectal cancer surgery depends on the surgeon’s experience, the general health status of the patient and the stage of the cancer. In the postoperative period, it is important for patients to continue regular check-ups and appropriate treatment methods.
Rectal Cancer Treatment Prices in Turkey
Turkey has managed to announce its name to the world with its investments and studies in the field of health. Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.
- Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
- Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
- Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
- Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
- Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
- Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
- Easy transportation.
- Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.
Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. We can see that patients and relatives of patients who want to come to Turkey are doing research on Rectal Cancer Treatment Prices in Turkey. However, it would not be correct to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.
Prof.Dr. Ergün Dağlıoğlu (Eğitim Görevlisi), Beyin Cerrahı, Beyin Ve Sinir Cerrahisi
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