Oesophageal cancer is a serious health problem that is quite common today, especially in adults. This disease is a type of cancer that starts in the cells of the oesophagus, the tube-shaped organ located between the stomach and the mouth. Having information about oesophageal cancer, symptoms and treatment methods is important for early diagnosis and successful treatment. In this article we have written for you, we will try to answer the questions about oesophageal cancer.
What Is Oesophageal Cancer?
Oesophageal cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the cells lining the lining of the oesophagus and multiplies uncontrollably to form a tumour. Oesophageal cancer is divided into two main types: Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that occurs in the upper and middle parts of the oesophagus and consists of flat cells. Adenocarcinoma, on the other hand, starts in the lower part of the oesophagus and is caused by cell changes caused by the reflux of stomach acid into the oesophagus.
What Causes Esophageal Cancer?
Although the exact cause of oesophageal cancer is not known, it has been associated with some risk factors. These risk factors are as follows;
- Smoking and alcohol use,
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD),
- Barrett’s oesophagus,
- Overweight and obese,
- Diet and nutrition,
- Genetic factors and family history,
What are the Symptoms of Esophageal Cancer?
There may be no symptoms in the early stages of oesophageal cancer. However, as the disease progresses, the following symptoms may be observed;
- Difficulty swallowing,
- Weight loss,
- Pain and discomfort,
- Hoarseness and cough,
- Heartburn and reflux,
In case of suspicion of oesophageal cancer, it is important to contact a gastroenterologist or oncologist and undergo the necessary examinations. With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment methods, oesophageal cancer can be successfully treated.
How Is Oesophageal Cancer Diagnosed?
Doctors use various methods to diagnose oesophageal cancer. Some methods used for the diagnosis of oesophageal cancer can be listed as follows;
The doctor performs a physical examination to assess the patient’s general state of health and symptoms. At this stage, information about the patient’s medical history and lifestyle is collected.
Endoscopy is used in patients with suspected oesophageal cancer. In this method, the doctor inserts an endoscope, a thin and flexible tube, through the patient’s mouth into the oesophagus. The camera and light at the end of the endoscope allow the doctor to view the inner surface of the oesophagus and detect abnormal areas.
During the endoscopy, the doctor takes samples from suspicious areas and performs a biopsy. Biopsy samples are examined in the pathology laboratory and the presence of cancer cells is confirmed.
Various imaging tests are used to determine the stage and spread of oesophageal cancer. These include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and ultrasonography.
In some cases, doctors can assess the spread and stage of the cancer through a surgical procedure called laparoscopy. In this method, the doctor inserts a thin tube and a camera into the abdominal cavity and checks whether the cancer has spread to the liver and other organs.
What Is Done In The Treatment Of Oesophageal Cancer?
The treatment of oesophageal cancer is determined depending on factors such as the general health status of the patient, the stage and spread of the cancer. Treatment options include:
In the treatment of oesophageal cancer, surgery is used to remove the cancerous tissue and surrounding healthy tissue. Surgical options include oesophagectomy (removal of part or all of the oesophagus) and laryngectomy (removal of the larynx).
Radiation therapy aims to kill cancer cells using high-energy rays. This treatment may be given before or after surgery and sometimes in combination with chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy is a treatment method using drugs that prevent the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be administered before or after surgery and sometimes in combination with radiation therapy.
Targeted therapies use drugs that act on specific proteins or genes that inhibit the growth and spread of cancer cells. These treatments can be applied in combination with other treatment methods or alone.
Immunotherapy uses drugs that help the patient’s immune system to fight against cancer cells by strengthening it. This treatment can be used especially in patients with oesophageal cancer that is resistant to other treatment methods.
What Are The Risk Factors For Oesophageal Cancer?
Risk factors for oesophageal cancer refer to conditions that increase the likelihood of cancer developing. Some known risk factors for oesophageal cancer are;
- Smoking and alcohol use significantly increase the risk of oesophageal cancer.
- GERD, which occurs when stomach acid escapes back into the oesophagus, can increase the risk of oesophageal cancer.
- Being overweight or obese is a factor that increases the risk of oesophageal cancer.
- The risk of oesophageal cancer increases with age. This type of cancer is usually seen in people aged 50 and over.
- Men have a higher risk of developing oesophageal cancer than women.
- Inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetables may increase the risk of oesophageal cancer.
- People who have a first-degree relative with oesophageal cancer have a higher risk of developing this type of cancer.
- In particular, genetic conditions such as Barrett’s oesophagus can increase the risk of oesophageal cancer.
Esophageal Cancer Treatment Prices in Turkey
Turkey has succeeded in making its name known to the world with its investments and Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.
- Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
- Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
- Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
- Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
- Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
- Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
- Easy transportation.
- Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.
Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. We can see that patients and relatives of patients who want to come to Turkey are doing research on the prices of oesophageal cancer treatment in Turkey. However, it would not be correct to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.
Prof.Dr. Ergün Dağlıoğlu (Eğitim Görevlisi), Beyin Cerrahı, Beyin Ve Sinir Cerrahisi