Meningitis is a serious infectious disease that occurs when the membranes of the brain and spinal cord become inflamed. This disease has a high incidence, especially in children and young people, and can result in permanent damage and even death if not treated quickly and effectively. Although there are different types and causes of meningitis, it is usually bacterial, viral, or fungal. In this article we have written for you, we will try to give general information about meningitis, the types and causes of meningitis, and how to treat this disease.
What Is Meningitis?
Meningitis is an infectious disease that occurs as a result of inflammation of the membranes (meninges) around the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis manifests itself with symptoms such as the sudden onset of severe headache, fever, neck stiffness, sensitivity to light, and rashes. The majority of meningitis cases are caused by viral infections and usually have a milder course and can heal on their own. However, bacterial meningitis is a serious and rapidly progressing infection and can lead to permanent damage and death if timely and appropriate treatment is not applied.
What Are The Types of Meningitis?
Meningitis is divided into three main types according to the causative microorganism;
Bacterial Meningitis; Bacterial meningitis is a serious and life-threatening type of infection usually caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitides, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Bacterial meningitis can progress rapidly, leading to permanent consequences such as brain damage, hearing loss, and learning difficulties.
Viral Meningitis; Viral meningitis, the most common type of meningitis, is an infection caused by viruses such as enteroviruses, herpes viruses, and tick-borne viruses. Viral meningitis usually has a milder course and often heals on its own.
Fungal Meningitis; Fungal meningitis is a less common type of meningitis caused by fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans. Fungal meningitis is at higher risk, especially in people with weak immune systems, HIV / AIDS patients, and organ transplant recipients.
What Are The Causes Of Meningitis?
The causes of meningitis vary depending on the causative microorganisms. Bacterial meningitis usually occurs as a complication of respiratory infections, sinusitis, and otitis media. Viral meningitis develops when viruses are transmitted through the respiratory tract, digestive tract, or insect bites. Fungal meningitis, on the other hand, occurs when fungal spores are inhaled or spread directly to the membranes of the brain and spinal cord.
The treatment of meningitis depends on the type and severity of the infection. Bacterial meningitis is usually treated with intravenous antibiotics, while viral meningitis is treated with antiviral drugs and supportive therapies. Antifungal drugs are used in the treatment of fungal meningitis. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of meningitis are of great importance in the course and outcome of the disease.
What Are The Symptoms of Meningitis?
Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord (meninges) and can be of bacterial, viral, or fungal origin. Symptoms of meningitis may vary depending on the severity and type of the disease. The most common symptoms of meningitis can be listed as follows;
- Neck stiffness and stiffness,
- Light sensitivity,
- Nausea and vomiting,
- Sleepiness and confusion,
- Loss of appetite,
- Skin rashes,
Symptoms of meningitis in infants and young children are as follows:
- Restlessness and constant crying,
- Loss of appetite
- Bulging fontanelle (the soft area at the top of the baby’s head),
- Sleepiness and decreased alertness,
How Is Meningitis Diagnosed?
Meningitis is diagnosed by considering the patient’s symptoms and clinical examination findings. Some tests performed to confirm the diagnosis are as follows;
- Blood tests
- Lumbar puncture (cerebrospinal fluid sampling),
- Imaging tests,
How Is Meningitis Treated?
Meningitis treatment varies depending on the cause and severity of the disease.
Bacterial meningitis; Bacterial meningitis is usually successfully treated in hospitals with intravenous (intravenous) antibiotic therapy. Supportive medications such as corticosteroids, antipyretics, and painkillers can also be used.
Viral meningitis; There is no specific treatment for viral meningitis. Most patients recover by symptomatic treatment with rest, plenty of fluid intake, and painkillers. However, antiviral drugs may also be used in some cases.
Fungal meningitis; Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal drugs. This type of meningitis is usually seen in people with weak immune systems and the treatment process can take a long time.
Early diagnosis and treatment are important in successfully managing meningitis and preventing complications. People who experience symptoms of meningitis are advised to contact a health institution immediately.
How To Prevent Meningitis?
Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord and is usually caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections. Meningitis can be a serious health problem, especially for infants and young adults, and requires prompt treatment. The ways to prevent meningitis infection can be explained as follows;
The most important way to prevent meningitis is to have appropriate vaccinations. Haemophilia infection (Hib), pneumococcal and meningococcal vaccines provide protection against bacteria that are the most common cause of meningitis. It is important to complete the vaccinations according to the vaccination schedule.
To prevent the transmission of meningitis, regular hand washing, avoiding people who cough or sneeze, proper disposal of used tissues and not sharing personal items are important.
A healthy immune system protects against meningitis infection. A balanced and healthy diet, regular exercise, attention to sleep patterns, and managing stress are factors that strengthen the immune system.
Before traveling to areas where meningitis is common, you can take additional vaccinations or precautions in consultation with your doctor. You can also reduce the risk of infection by avoiding crowded and confined spaces.
Those living in the same household as a person with meningitis can be protected from infection by taking prophylactic antibiotic treatment on the doctor’s advice.
Is Meningitis Contagious?
Whether meningitis is contagious depends on the causative agents of meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is highly contagious, especially when caused by bacteria such as Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. This type of meningitis can be transmitted by coughing, sneezing, kissing, or using the personal belongings of an infected person. Because bacterial meningitis is contagious, early diagnosis and treatment are important.
Viral meningitis is usually caused by viruses such as enteroviruses, herpes viruses, and mumps viruses. Viral meningitis is less contagious than bacterial meningitis and usually has a milder course. Viral meningitis can be transmitted by inhalation or by contact with the feces of an infected person.
Fungal meningitis is usually not contagious and is more common in people with weakened immune systems. Fungal meningitis can be transmitted by inhalation of airborne fungal spores, but person-to-person transmission is rare.
The contagiousness of meningitis depends on the cause of the infection. To reduce the risk of transmission of meningitis, it is important to receive appropriate vaccinations, pay attention to hygiene rules, and adopt lifestyle choices that strengthen the immune system.
Meningitis Treatment Prices in Turkey
Turkey has managed to announce its name to the world with its investments and studies in the field of health. Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.
- Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
- Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
- Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
- Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
- Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
- Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
- Easy transportation.
- Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.
Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. Meningitis Treatment Prices in Turkey
We can see that patients and relatives of patients who want to come to Turkey are doing research. However, it would not be correct to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.
Prof.Dr. Ergün Dağlıoğlu (Eğitim Görevlisi), Beyin Cerrahı, Beyin Ve Sinir Cerrahisi