Plague is an infectious disease that has caused major epidemics and millions of deaths throughout history, causing fear and panic. This deadly disease is caused by bacteria and can be controlled and prevented with effective treatment methods. Although plague cases are rare today, being conscious and careful is of great importance to prevent the spread of the disease. In this article we have written for you, general information about plague, its types and symptoms will be discussed.
What Is Plague?
Plague is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Yersinia pestis. It is usually transmitted to humans through rodents and fleas that feed on these animals. This disease, which caused major epidemics in Europe in the Middle Ages and was called the “Black Death”, caused the death of about one third of the population at that time. Thanks to the discovery of antibiotics and effective treatment methods, plague cases have been greatly reduced today.
What Are The Types of Plague?
Plague disease is divided into three main types: Bubonic plague, septicemic plague and pneumonic plague.
Bubonic plague is the most common type of plague, transmitted by flea bites and characterized by swelling of the lymph nodes.
Septicemic plague is a more rapidly progressing, more deadly form that occurs when the bacteria enter the bloodstream.
Pneumonic plague, on the other hand, is the most deadly and contagious type of plague that is transmitted through respiration and affects the lungs.
What Are The Symptoms of Plague?
Although the symptoms of plague disease vary depending on the type, they usually appear as sudden onset of high fever, chills, weakness, headache and muscle aches. Bubonic plague symptoms include large and painful swelling of the lymph nodes (masses called bubo). Symptoms of septicemic plague include shock, low blood pressure, organ failure and purplish spots on the skin. Symptoms of pneumonic plague are cough, shortness of breath, chest pain and bloody sputum.
Plague disease has a high chance of recovery when diagnosed and treated early. However, untreated or late diagnosed cases, especially septicemic and pneumonic plague types, can have fatal consequences. For this reason, it is of great importance that people who show symptoms of plague should immediately apply to health institutions and start the treatment process.
What Are The Causes of Plague?
Plague is an infectious and deadly disease caused by a bacterium called Yersinia pestis. This disease, which caused the death of millions of people in the Middle Ages, is still dangerous, although it is less common today. We can list the causes of plague as follows;
- Plague is a disease caused by a bacterium called Yersinia pestis. This bacterium can spread between infected animals and humans and cause the disease to occur.
- Plague is usually spread through rodents and fleas that live on these animals. After sucking the blood of an infected animal, fleas bite another animal or human and transmit the bacteria. This can lead to the spread of plague, especially in areas where agriculture and animal husbandry activities are carried out.
- Plague can also be spread by inhaling respiratory droplets from an infected person. This is particularly the case with pneumonic plague, a lung infection caused by the bacteria.
- Plague is particularly common in areas with poor hygiene and sanitation. This can facilitate the spread of the bacteria and cause the disease to occur.
How Is Plague Treated?
Plague can be successfully treated with early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Plague treatment is carried out as follows;
Antibiotics used in the treatment of plague infection include streptomycin, gentamicin, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. These drugs target the bacteria, allowing the infection to be controlled and the patient to recover.
Plague patients receive supportive treatment for symptoms and complications caused by the infection. This includes measures such as maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, controlling pain and fever, and respiratory support.
People who have been in contact with plague may be given prophylactic antibiotic treatment to prevent the onset of the disease. In addition, people traveling to areas at risk of plague may be given antibiotic treatment in advance.
How Is Plague Diagnosed?
Plague is diagnosed by the patient’s clinical symptoms, the way the infection spreads and laboratory tests. The following methods are used for plague diagnosis;
Plague patients usually have symptoms such as high fever, weakness, headache, muscle aches and swelling of the lymph nodes. These symptoms provide important clues in the diagnosis of the disease.
For the diagnosis of plague, blood, lymph node tissue or sputum samples are analysed for the presence of Yersinia pestis bacteria. Methods such as microscopy, culture and molecular tests are used for this purpose.
The diagnosis of plague is also supported by the number of plague cases in the areas where the patient lives or has travelled and the spread of the infection. This information helps to diagnose the disease correctly and to apply appropriate treatment methods.
What Are The Plague Treatment Methods?
Plague treatment methods are as follows;
- The most important drugs in the treatment of plague are antibiotics. Antibiotics effective against Yersinia pestis bacteria include streptomycin, gentamicin, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. Starting antibiotic treatment quickly after diagnosis greatly reduces the risk of disease progression and death.
- Supportive therapies such as painkillers, antipyretics and fluids can be administered to help plague patients recover. These treatments improve the general condition of the patient and increase the effect of antibiotics.
- Sometimes plague can spread to the lungs and cause pneumonia. In this case, patients may need respiratory support. Oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation helps the patient to maintain proper breathing.
- Plague patients should be isolated from other people to prevent the spread of the disease. In particular, patients with pneumonic plague should be placed in strict isolation due to the risk of transmitting the disease through respiration.
What Precautions Can Be Taken To Prevent Plague?
Measures that can be taken to protect against plague are as follows;
Plague can be spread by mosquito and tick bites. Therefore, it is important to fight these insects. Insect repellent sprays, wearing light-coloured and long-sleeved clothes and eliminating the habitats of insects are effective methods to protect against plague.
Pets, especially dogs and cats, can transmit the disease to humans when they come into contact with plague-infected rodents. For this reason, it is important that pets are regularly checked by a veterinarian and receive the necessary vaccinations.
One of the most important ways to prevent plague is to pay attention to personal hygiene rules. Washing hands regularly, cleaning and sterilising wounds and paying attention to cleanliness reduces the risk of transmission of the disease.
Contact with plague-infected rodents increases the risk of disease transmission. Therefore, it is important to control wild rodents and eliminate their habitats. In particular, the regular collection and strict sealing of rubbish reduces rodent habitats.
Those who have to travel to areas with plague outbreaks should take precautions, especially against mosquito and tick bites. It is also important to pay attention to the warnings and recommendations of health authorities in these areas.
Plague Disease Treatment Prices in Turkey
Turkey has succeeded in making its name known to the world with its investments and Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.
- Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
- Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
- Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
- Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
- Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
- Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
- Easy transportation.
- Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.
Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. We can see that patients and relatives of patients who want to come to Turkey are doing research on Plague Disease Treatment Prices in Turkey. However, it would not be correct to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.
Prof.Dr. Ergün Dağlıoğlu (Eğitim Görevlisi), Beyin Cerrahı, Beyin Ve Sinir Cerrahisi