Lymphoma is a type of cancer that starts in the cells of the lymph system, an important part of the immune system. The lymph system includes organs such as the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus, which fight infections and remove waste in the body. Lymphoma is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can be treated when diagnosed early. In this article we have written for you, you can learn more about lymphoma, its causes and symptoms.
What Is Lymph Cancer (Lymphoma)?
Lymphoma is a type of cancer that occurs when white blood cells called lymphocytes proliferate abnormally and accumulate in lymph nodes or lymph tissues. Lymphocytes are cells of the immune system that form the body’s line of defense against infections and diseases. Lymphoma is classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is less common and usually occurs in young adults, while non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common and its risk increases with age.
What Causes Lymphoma?
Although the causes of lymphoma are not fully known, some factors are thought to increase the risk of developing lymphoma. These factors include genetic predisposition, immune system weakness, age, gender, and some viral infections (such as Epstein-Barr virus, HIV). In addition, radiation and exposure to certain chemicals can also increase the risk of lymphoma.
What Are The Symptoms of Lymph Cancer (Lymphoma)?
Symptoms of lymphoma may vary depending on the type and stage of the disease and the affected area of the body. However, some common symptoms in lymphoma patients are as follows;
- Swollen lymph nodes (in the neck, armpit, or groin area),
- Fever, night sweats, and constant fatigue,
- Loss of appetite and weight loss,
- Cough, shortness of breath and chest pain,
- Swelling and discomfort in the abdomen,
- Itching and redness of the skin,
- Bone pain
- Headache, difficulty concentrating and nervous system symptoms,
Symptoms of lymphoma can be similar to those of other diseases. Therefore, it is important for people experiencing any of these symptoms to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
What Are The Types of Lymphoma?
Lymph cancer or lymphoma is a type of cancer that starts in the lymph nodes and lymph tissues, which are an important part of our immune system called the lymph system. Lymphoma is divided into two main categories: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma; Hodgkin’s lymphoma is the less common type of lymphoma and usually occurs in young adults aged 15-35 years and people over 50 years of age. The most important feature of this type of cancer is the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells under the microscope. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is further subdivided into two subtypes: classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-dominated Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a much more common type of lymphoma that accounts for the vast majority of lymphoma cases. Reed-Sternberg cells are not found in this type of cancer. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is divided into three main subcategories according to cell type: B-cell lymphoma, T-cell lymphoma and NK-cell lymphoma. Each subcategory includes more specific types of lymphoma.
How Is Lymphoma Diagnosed?
Doctors usually use the following methods to diagnose lymphoma;
- With physical examination, the doctor checks the patient for enlarged lymph nodes and other symptoms.
- Blood tests such as complete blood count and biochemistry profile provide information about the symptoms of lymphoma and general health status.
- Imaging tests such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) show the spread of lymphoma cells in the body and the affected areas.
- A lymph node biopsy is the most important test for diagnosing lymphoma. The doctor takes a sample from the enlarged lymph node and examines it under a microscope.
- A bone marrow biopsy can be performed to determine whether the lymphoma has spread to the bone marrow.
How Is Lymphoma Treatment Performed?
Lymphoma treatment varies depending on factors such as the patient’s general health status, type and stage of lymphoma. The main methods of treatment are;
Chemotherapy; Drugs are used to kill cancer cells or stop their growth. Chemotherapy can be administered as oral pills or intravenous drugs.
Radiotherapy; It is a treatment method that kills cancer cells using high-energy X-rays. Radiotherapy can be used in cases where lymphoma is only in a certain area.
Immunotherapy; It is a treatment method that fights against lymphoma cells using drugs that strengthen the immune system. This method, which is especially effective in non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, includes drugs such as monoclonal antibodies and immune modulator drugs.
Targeted therapies; Drugs are used for specific molecular targets that prevent the growth and spread of cancer cells. These treatments usually have fewer side effects and are particularly effective in non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas.
Stem cell transplantation; After high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy, the bone marrow and immune system are reconstituted using the patient’s own stem cells or stem cells from a suitable donor.
In the treatment of lymphoma, it is possible to use these methods alone or in combination. The doctor determines the most appropriate treatment plan according to the patient’s condition.
What Are The Risk Factors For Lymphoma?
Lymph cancer or lymphoma is cancer of the immune system components called the lymph system. The lymph system consists of white blood cells called lymphocytes that fight infections in the body. Lymph cancer usually starts in the lymph nodes and can spread. Lymphoma is classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The risk factors for lymphoma are similar for both types;
The risk of lymphoma increases with age. The highest risk for Hodgkin’s lymphoma is seen in individuals aged 20-30 years and over 55 years, while non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is more common in individuals aged 60 years and over.
Hodgkin’s lymphoma is more common in men than women, while non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is equally common in both sexes.
The risk of lymphoma increases in individuals with HIV/AIDS, immunosuppressive drugs after organ transplantation or congenital disorders related to the immune system.
Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and Sjögren’s syndrome can increase the risk of lymphoma due to abnormal functioning of the immune system.
Family history plays a role in a small proportion of lymphoma cases. People with a family history of lymphoma have a slightly higher risk of developing lymphoma.
Some viral and bacterial infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis C virus, may increase the risk of lymphoma.
Exposure to chemicals such as pesticides, solvents and some industrial chemicals may increase the risk of lymphoma. However, this relationship has not yet been fully proven.
Radiation exposure, especially during childhood and young adulthood, may increase the risk of lymphoma. This applies to individuals who have undergone radiation therapy or have been exposed to radiation sources such as atomic bombs.
Obesity and malnutrition are factors that may increase the risk of lymphoma. Maintaining a healthy weight and eating a balanced diet can help reduce the risk of lymphoma.
Risk factors for lymphoma include age, gender, immune system weakness, autoimmune diseases, family history, infections, exposure to chemicals, radiation and obesity. Some of these factors can be controlled, while others cannot. To reduce the risk of lymphoma, it is important to adopt a healthy lifestyle, eat a balanced diet and strengthen the immune system.
Lymphoma (Lymph Cancer) Treatment Prices in Turkey
Turkey has managed to announce its name to the world with its investments and studies in the field of health. Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.
- Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
- Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
- Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
- Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
- Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
- Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
- Easy transportation.
- Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.
Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. We can see that patients and relatives of patients who want to come to Türkiye are doing research on Lymphoma (Lymph Cancer) Treatment Prices in Türkiye. However, it would not be right to give clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Türkiye for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.
Prof.Dr. Ergün Dağlıoğlu (Eğitim Görevlisi), Beyin Cerrahı, Beyin Ve Sinir Cerrahisi