Bladder cancer is a type of cancer caused by the formation of malignant tumors in the bladder, also known as the urinary bladder. This type of cancer, which is common worldwide, is more common in men than in women. Bladder cancer, whose risk factors increase especially with advancing age, can be successfully treated when diagnosed early. In this article we have written for you, we will try to give detailed information about what bladder cancer is, its symptoms, and its causes.
What Is Bladder Cancer?
Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that occurs as a result of the uncontrolled proliferation of cells on the inner surface of the bladder wall. This type of cancer is often called urothelial carcinoma because it starts in the urothelial cells lining the bladder wall. Bladder cancer can also be encountered with other less common types such as squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. When diagnosed in the early stages, bladder cancer treatment is highly successful and can significantly improve a patient’s quality of life.
What Are The Symptoms of Bladder Cancer?
The most common symptom of bladder cancer is the appearance of blood during urination. This symptom is usually painless and occurs suddenly in most patients. Other bladder cancer symptoms include;
- Frequent need to urinate,
- Pain or burning sensation during urination,
- Feeling the need to urinate, but not being able to urinate,
- Weakening or interruption of urine flow,
- General health problems such as weight loss, loss of appetite and fatigue,
What Are The Causes Of Bladder Cancer?
Although the exact cause of bladder cancer is unknown, some factors are thought to play a role in the development of this type of cancer. Factors that can lead to bladder cancer are as follows;
- Smoking is the most important factor that significantly increases the risk of developing bladder cancer.
- Workers in the paint, rubber, textile, and leather industries are exposed to chemicals that can cause cancer.
- The risk of bladder cancer increases with age. It is usually seen in people aged 60 and over.
- Men have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer than women.
- People with a family history of bladder cancer have a higher risk of developing this type of cancer.
- People with chronic bladder infections or bladder stones have an increased risk of bladder cancer.
Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that can be successfully treated with early diagnosis and correct treatment methods. Therefore, it is important to consult a specialist immediately when you notice symptoms.
What Are The Types of Bladder Cancer?
Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the bladder, also known as the urinary bladder. The bladder is an organ located in the pelvic region that stores urine. Bladder cancer is the most common among urological cancers and is more common in men than women. Types of bladder cancer vary depending on the cells where the cancer cells start and how the cancer grows. The types of bladder cancer are as follows;
Urothelial Carcinoma (Transitional Cell Carcinoma); This type, which accounts for about 90% of bladder cancer cases, starts from the cells lining the inner surface of the bladder (urothelial cells). Urothelial carcinoma can start in the bladder as well as in the collecting system in the kidneys and ureters.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma; This type, which accounts for approximately 5% of bladder cancer cases, occurs as a result of the cells lining the inner surface of the bladder turning into squamous cells. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops due to long-term bladder irritation and inflammation.
Adenocarcinoma; This type, which accounts for 1-2% of bladder cancer cases, develops from the gland tissue of the bladder. Adenocarcinoma begins in the mucus-secreting cells of the bladder and can grow aggressively in the bladder as in other organs.
Small Cell Carcinoma; This rare type of bladder cancer starts from small cells of the bladder similar to nerve cells. Although small cell carcinoma is more common in the lungs, it can also occur in the bladder and is a fast-growing, aggressive type of cancer.
What Are The Stages of Bladder Cancer?
Bladder cancer stages are used to determine how far the cancer has spread and treatment options. Bladder cancer stages are as follows;
Stage 0; Cancer is found only on the inner surface of the bladder and has not yet reached the muscle layer. Stage 0 is divided into two sub-stages: Transportable superficial cancer (Ta) and Carcinoma in situ (Tis).
Stage I; The cancer has spread from the inner lining of the bladder to the connective tissue, but has not yet reached the muscle layer (T1).
Stage II; The cancer has spread to the muscle layer of the bladder, but has not yet spread to the surrounding tissues and organs (T2).
Stage III; The cancer has spread to the fatty tissue around the bladder and nearby organs, but has not yet spread to the lymph nodes and distant organs (T3-T4a).
Stage IV: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and/or distant organs (T4b, N1-3, M1).
Determining the stages of bladder cancer helps to determine the most appropriate treatment options for patients. Bladder cancer caught in its early stages usually has more successful treatment outcomes.
What Are Bladder Cancer Diagnosis Methods?
Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that occurs as a result of uncontrolled growth and proliferation of cells in the bladder. With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the quality and duration of life of patients can be significantly increased. The methods used in the diagnosis of bladder cancer are as follows;
The doctor performs a physical examination to assess the patient’s general health status and observe symptoms. This may include checking for swelling or tenderness in the abdomen.
Urine samples are taken to check for the presence of blood or cancer cells in the urine. This test, called urine cytology, plays an important role in the early diagnosis of bladder cancer.
Imaging tests such as X-rays, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to obtain detailed images of the bladder and surrounding tissues. These images help doctors assess the spread and stage of the cancer.
A thin, flexible tube called a cystoscope is inserted into the bladder to examine abnormal areas in the bladder wall. If necessary, a sample of the suspicious tissue is taken by a procedure called a biopsy and sent for pathological examination.
After the suspicious tissue samples are taken, pathologists will examine the samples under a microscope to determine whether the cells are cancerous and the type of cancer.
To determine the stage of cancer, doctors may perform further tests such as bone scans, CT scans, and PET scans. These tests help determine the spread of cancer and treatment options.
How Is Bladder Cancer Treated?
Bladder cancer treatment is determined by the patient’s general health condition, stage, and type of cancer. Treatment options are as follows;
Surgical procedures for complete or partial removal of cancerous tissue are frequently used in the treatment of bladder cancer. Surgical methods such as transurethral resection (TUR), radical cystectomy and partial cystectomy can be applied.
Drugs are used to stop or slow the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be applied before or after surgery and is sometimes used in combination with radiotherapy.
Using high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation, the DNA of cancer cells is damaged and their growth and reproduction are prevented. Radiotherapy can be applied before or after surgery and is sometimes used in combination with chemotherapy.
Drugs are used to strengthen the patient’s immune system and help it fight against cancer cells. Immunotherapy is an important treatment option, especially for patients with advanced bladder cancer.
Drugs that target specific molecules or cells that prevent the growth and spread of cancer cells are used. These drugs can slow the progression of cancer and increase the patient’s life expectancy and quality.
Treatments such as pain management, nutritional support, and psychological support are used to improve patients’ quality of life and help them better tolerate the treatment process.
Bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment methods vary depending on the patient’s condition and the stage of the cancer. With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the quality and duration of life of patients can be significantly increased.
Bladder Cancer Treatment Prices in Turkey
Turkey has managed to announce its name to the world with its investments and studies in the field of health. Especially the latest technological devices used in diagnosis and treatment procedures have been a beacon of hope for many diseases. However, there has been an increase in health tourism in Türkiye.
- Hospitals are large, clean, spacious and fully equipped in terms of technological equipment.
- Turkish doctors are specialized, successful, and skilled in their fields.
- Nurses and carers are friendly and compassionate.
- Finding answers to the questions asked quickly and accurately.
- Patience and understanding of all staff, including the intermediary company dealing with the patient.
- Turkey offers holiday opportunities with its natural and historical beauties.
- Easy transportation.
- Diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, eating, drinking, dressing, and holiday needs can be met at affordable prices.
Such situations are shown among the reasons for preference. We can see that patients and relatives of patients who want to come to Turkey are doing research on bladder cancer treatment prices in Turkey. However, it would not be correct to give a clear price information at this stage. Many factors such as the type of disease, stage, diagnosis process, treatment process, and stay in Türkiye affect the price issue. If you want to get more detailed price information, you can contact us. In addition, if you come to Turkey for treatment through us, we can facilitate your visa application process with the invitation letter sent by us to the consulate.
Prof.Dr. Ergün Dağlıoğlu (Eğitim Görevlisi), Beyin Cerrahı, Beyin Ve Sinir Cerrahisi